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Syllabus Covered as per prescribed UPSC Syllabus
Prescribed UPSC Syllabus Topics Covered Subtopics Covered (Theory, MCQs, Subjective Ques.)
Science and technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology. Nuclear Science,  Defense, Energy

Nuclear Science: Basics of Nuclear Science, Nuclear Reactions, Radioactive material and Enrichment, Radioactivity and Isotopes, Nuclear Deal, NPT, IAEA, Indian Organizational arrangement in Nuclear Sector, Nuclear Reactor, India's Nuclear Power Programme, Nuclear Liability Act, India's Nuclear Weapon Programme-Nuclear Deterrence, Nuclear Doctrine of India, Iran Nuclear Deal, Nuclear Fusion, FMCT, NSG, Food Irradiation.

Defense: MTCR, Types of Missile/Anti-Missile, Defense Agreement, Defence Procurement Policy, FDI in Defence, RADAR-LIDAR-SONAR.

Energy: Hydrogen Fuels, Electric Vehicle, Energy Storage System.

Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, Nano-Technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights. Space, Biotechnology, Nanotechnology, Computer and IT, Electronics & Communication, Cyber Crime, and Security, 

Space: Basic of Gravitation, Launch Vehicles-PSLV, GSLV, RLVTD, List of Important Satellite, Satellite Orbits, Space Missions, Lunar Mission, Space Commerce, Navigation System-GPS, Space Stations, Organization Dealing With Space, Space Debris-Kessler Syndrome, Sun Spot Cycle.

Biotechnology: Introduction of Biotech and its Application, Biotechnology Sectors in India, Cloning, Generic Drugs, IPR & TRIPS +, GM Crops/Foods, GI, Committees and Authorities, GURTs, Surrogacy, Genomics, Gene Therapy, Drug-Resistant-Super-bugs, Bio-Piracy, Stem Cells, Government Initiatives, Food Fortification, Fixed-Dose Combinations, DNA Technology Regulation Bill, ART-Three Parent Baby, Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient.

Nanotechnology: Nano Mission, Graphene and Carbon Nano-tubes, Application of Nanotechnology, Nano Products.

Computer and IT: Net Neutrality, Internet Governance, Quantum Computing, DNA Computing, Optical Computing, AI, Blue-Brain Project, Robotics, Big Data, Virtual-Augmented Reality, Supercomputer, CryptoCurrency.

Electronic & Communication: Generation of Mobile Technology, FDMA/TDMA/CDMA, Communication Organizations, Wi-Fi, Li-Fi, Wi-Max, Optical Communication, LED.

Cyber Crime and Security: Cyber Crimes, Cyber Security Policy, Cyber Security Organization in India, Cyber-Physical System.

General Science Fundamental Physics, Biology, Chemistry in Everyday Life,  Diseases

Fundamental Physics: Large Hadron Collider-Higgs Boson, Fundamental Particles, Neutrino-INA, Fundamental Forces, String Theory, Dark Matter, and  Dark Energy, Anti-Matter, Gravitational Wave-LIGO-INDIGO, Weights & Measures, Fundamental Units, Inertia and Projectile Motion, Fluids, Sound.

Biology: Classification of Plants and Animals, The Cell, Nutrition, Human Digestive System, Bones, Integumentary System, Respiratory System, Circulatory System, Blood, Lymphatic System, Glandular System, Nervous System, Sensory Organ.

Chemistry in Everyday Life.

Diseases: Japanese Encephalitis, Poliomyelitis, Zika, Non-Communicable Diseases, National Policy in Rare Diseases.

 


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Syllabus for Prelims Exam ("Science & Technology" Highlighted Yellow)

Syllabus of PRELIMS Paper I (200 marks) Duration: 2 hours

  • Current events of national and international importance

  • History of India and Indian National Movement Indian.

  • World Geography - Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World Indian

  • Polity and Governance - Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

  • Economic and Social Development - Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc.

  • General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change - that do not require subject specialization

  • General Science.

Syllabus for Mains Exam ("Science & Technology" Highlighted Yellow)

General Studies -III (Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management)  250 Marks

ENVIRONMENT

Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

ECONOMY

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

  • Government Budgeting.

  • Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers

  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.

  • Land reforms in India.

  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

  • Investment models.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

  • Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

  • indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, Nano-Technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

  • Disaster and disaster management.

SECURITY

  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism
  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

 

Last 8 Year Prelims Question asked from Science & Technology Subject (Year Wise)

2018

Total Number of  Questions asked from S & T 12/100:

Total Marks allotted to S & T  is 24 Marks / 200 Total Marks.       

Q 1.In which of the following areas can GPS technology be used?

1.Mobile phone operations

2.Banking Operations

3.Controlling the power grids

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1 only         

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3 only

 

Q 2. 3D printing” has applications in which of the following?

1.Preparation of confectionery items

2.Manufacture of Bionic ears

3.Automotive industry

4.Reconstructive surgeries

5.Data processing technologies

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a)1, 3 and 4 only

(b)2, 3 and 5 only

(c)1 and 4 only (d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

 

Q3.The terms ‘WannaCry, Petya and EternalBlue’ sometimes mentioned in the news recently are related to

(a)Exoplanets

(b)Cryptocurrency

(c)Cyber attacks

(d)Mini Satellites

 

Q 4.Which of the following is/are the aim/aims of “Digital India” plan of the Government of India?

1.Formation of India’s own internet companies like China did.

2.Establish a policy framework to encourage overseas multinational corporations that collect Big Data to build their large data centres within our national geographical boundaries.

3.Connect many of our villages to the Internet and bring Wi-Fi to many of our schools, public places and major tourist centres.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1 and 2 only

(b)3 only

(c)2 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

 

Q 5 .When the alarm of your smartphone rings in the morning, you wake up and tap it to stop the alarm which causes your geyser to be switched on automatically. The smart mirror in your bathroom shows the day’s weather and also indicates the level of water in your overhead tank. After you take some groceries from your refrigerator for making breakfast, it recognises the shortage of stock in it and places an order for the supply of fresh grocery items. When you step out of your house and lock the door, all lights, fans, geysers and AC machines get switched off automatically. On your way to office, your car warns you about traffic congestion ahead and suggests an alternative route, and if you are late for a meeting, it sends a message to your office accordingly.

In the context of emerging communication technologies, which one of the following terms best applies, to the above scenario?

(a)Border Gateway Protocol

(b)Internet of Things

(c)Internet Protocol

(d)Virtual Private Network

 

Q 6 With reference to digital payments, consider the following statements :

1.BHIM app allows the user to transfer money to anyone with a UPI-enabled bank account.

2.While a chip-pin debit card has four factors of authentication, BHIM app has only two factors of authentication.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2

 

Q 7 .The term “sixth mass extinction/sixth extinction” is often mentioned in the news in the context of the discussion of

(a)Widespread monoculture practices in agriculture and large-scale commercial farming with indiscriminate use of chemicals in many parts of the world that may result in the loss of good native ecosystems.

(b)Fears of a possible collision of a meteorite with the Earth in the near future in manner it happened 65  million  years  ago  that  caused  the  mass  extinction ofmany species including those of dinosaurs.

(c)Large scale cultivation of genetically modified crops in many parts of the world and promoting their cultivation in other parts of the world which may cause the disappearance of good native crop plants and the loss of food biodiversity.

(d)Mankind’s over-exploitation/misuse of natural resources, fragmentation/loss of natural habitats, destruction of ecosystems, pollution and global climate change.

 

Q 8.With reference to India’s Satellite launch vehicles, consider the following statements:

1.PSLVs launch the satellites useful for Earth resources monitoring whereas GSLVs are designed mainly to launch communication satellites.

2.Satellites launched by PSLV appear to remain permanently fixed in the same position in the sky, as viewed from a particular location on Earth

3.GSLV Mk III is four-staged launch vehicle with the first and third stages using solid rocket motors; and second and fourth stages using liquid rocket engines.

What of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 and 3

(c)1 and 2

(d)3 only

 

Q 9.With reference to the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), consider the following statements.

1.IRNSS has three satellites in geostationary and four satellites in geosynchronous orbits.

2.IRNSS covers entire India and about 5500 sq.km. beyond its borders.

3.India will have its own satellite navigation system with full global coverage by the middle of 2019.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)1 and 2 only

(c)2 and 3 only

(d)None

 

Q 10.Consider the following phenomena:

1.Light is affected by gravity.

2.The universe is constantly expanding.

3.Matter warps its surrounding space-time.

Which of the above is/are the prediction/predictions of Albert Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, often discussed in media?

(a)1 and 2 only

(b)3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2, and 3

 

Q 11.Consider the following pairs:

Term sometimes seen in news Context/Topic

1.Belle II experiment- Artificial Intelligence

2.Block chain technology- Digital/crypto currency

3.CRISPR – Cas9- Particle Physics Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

(a)1 and 3 only

(b)2 only

(c)2 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

 

Q 12.With reference to the Genetically Modified mustard (GM mustard) developed in India, consider the following statements:

1.GM mustard has the genes of a soil bacterium that give the plant the property of pest-resistance to a wide variety of pests.

2.GM mustard has the genes that allow the plant cross-pollination and hybridization.

3.GM mustard has been developed jointly by the IARI and Punjab Agricultural University.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 and 3 only

(b)2 only

(c)2 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

 

2017

Total Number of  Questions asked from S & T  5/100:

Total Marks allotted to S & T  is 10 Marks / 200 Total Marks.       

Q 1.Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) are used to create digital display in many devices. What are the advantages of OLED displays over Liquid Crystal displays?

1.OLED displays can be fabricated on flexible plastic substrates.

2.Roll-up displays embedded in clothing can be made using OLEDs.

3.Transparent displays are possible using OLEDs. Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1 and 3 only

(b)2 only

(c)1, 2 and 3

(d)None of the above statements is correct

 

Q 2.What is the application of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Technology?

(a)Production of biolarvicides

(b)Manufacture of biodegradable plastics

(c)Reproductive cloning of animals

(d)Production of organisms free of diseases

 

Q 3.What is the purpose of 'evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA)' project?

(a)To detect neutrinos

(b)To detect gravitational waves

(c)To detect the effectiveness of missile defence system

(d)To study the effect of solar flares on our communication systems

 

Q 4.The terms 'Event Horizon', 'Singularity'. 'String Theory' and 'Standard Model' are sometimes seen in the news in the context of

(a)Observation and understanding of the Universe

(b)Study of the solar and the lunar eclipses

(c)Placing satellites in the orbit of the Earth

(d)Origin and evolution of living organisms on the Earth

 

Q 5.It is possible to produce algae based biofuels, but what is/are the likely limitation(s) of developing countries in promoting this industry ?

1.Production of algae based biofuels is possible in seas only and not on continents.

2.Setting up and engineering the algae based biofuel production requires high level of expertise/technology until the construction is completed.

3.Economically viable production necessitates the setting up of large scale facilities which may raise ecological and social concerns.

Select the correct answer using the code given below :

(a)1 and 2 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

 

2016

Total Number of  Questions asked from S & T 11 /100:

Total Marks allotted to S & T is 22 Marks / 200 Total Marks.       

Q 1.With reference to ‘LiFi’, recently in the news, which of the following statement is/are correct?

1.It uses light as the medium for high speed data transmission.

2.It is a wireless technology and is several times faster than ‘WiFi’.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 only        

(c) Both 1 and 2          

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Q 2. In the context of the developments in Bioinformatics, the term ‘transcriptome’, sometimes seen in the news, refers to

(a)A range of enzymes used in genome editing

(b)The full range of mRNA molecules expressed by an organism

(c)The description of the mechanism of gene expression

(d)A mechanism of genetic mutations taking place in cells

 

Q 3.Project Loon”, sometimes seen in the news, is related to

(a)Waste management technology

(b)Wireless communication technology

(c)Solar power production technology

(d)Water conservation technology

 

Q 4. Which one of the following is the best description of ‘INS Astradharini’, that was in the news recently?

(a)Amphibious warfare ship

(b)Nuclear-powered submarine

(c)Torpedo launch and recovery vessel

(d)Nuclear-powered aircraft carrier

 

Q 5.What is ‘Greased Lightning-10 (GL-10)’, recently in the news?

(a)Electric plane tested by NASA

(b)Solar-powered two-seater aircraft designed by Japan

(c)Space observatory launched by China

(d)Reusable rocket designed by ISRO

 

Q 6. With reference to ‘Bitcoins’, sometimes seen in the news, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. Bitcoins are tracked by the Central Banks of the countries.

2. Anyone with a Bitcoin address can send and receive Bitcoins from anyone else with a Bitcoin address.

3. Online payments can be sent without either side knowing the identity of other.

 Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only          

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 3 only        

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 7. India is an important member of the ‘International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor’. If this experiment succeeds, what is the immediate advantage for India?

(a)It can use thorium in place of uranium for power generation

(b)It can attain a global role in satellite navigation

(c)It can drastically improve the efficiency of its fission reactors in power generation

(d)It can build fusion reactors for power generation

 

Q 8. Regarding ‘DigiLocker’ sometimes seen in the news, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1.It is a digital locker system offered by the Government under Digital India Programme.

2.It allows you to access your e-documents irrespective of your physical location.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 only        

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Q 9. With reference to ‘Astrosat’ the astronomical observatory launched by India, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. Other than USA and Russia, India is the only country to have launched a similar observatory into space.

2. Astrosat is a 2000 kg satellite placed in an orbit at 1650km above the surface of the Earth.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 only        

(c) Both 1 and 2          

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Q 10.Consider the following statements: The Mangalyaan launched by ISRO

1. Is also called the Mars Orbiter Mission.

2. Made India the second Country to have a Spacecraft orbit the Mars after USA.

3. Made India the only country to be successful in making its spacecraft orbit the Mars in its very first attempt

Which of the statements given above is//are correct?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 11.A recent movie titled The Man Who Knew infinity is based on the biography of

(a)S. Ramanujan

(b)S. Chandrasekhar

(c)S.N.Bose

(d)C.V. Raman

 

2015

Total Number of  Questions asked from S & T  7 /100:

Total Marks allotted to  S & T is 14 Marks / 200 Total Marks.       

Q 1.In which of the following activities are Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites used?

1.Assessment of crop productivity

2.Locating groundwater resources

3.Mineral exploration

4.Telecommunications

5.Traffic studies

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only      

(b) 4 and 5 only          

(c) 1 and 2 only          

(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

 

Q 2.The term ‘IndARC’, sometimes seen in the news, is the name of

(a)An indigenously developed radar system inducted into Indian Defence

(b)India’s satellite to provide services to the countries of Indian Ocean Rim

(c)A scientific establishment set up by India in Antarctic region

(d)India’s underwater observatory to scientifically study the Arctic region

 

Q 3. Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding National Innovation Foundation-India (NIF)?

NIF is an autonomous body of the Department of Science and Technology under the Central Government.

NIF is an initiative to strengthen the highly advanced scientific research  in India’spremier scientific institution in collaboration with highly advanced foreign scientific institutions.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 only        

(c) Both 1 and 2          

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Q 4. With reference to the use of nanotechnology in health sector, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. Targeted drug delivery is made possible by nanotechnology.

2. Nanotechnology can largely contribute to gene therapy.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 only        

(c) Both 1 and 2          

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Q 5.In the context of modern scientific research, consider the following statements about ‘IceCube’, a particle detector located at South Pole, which was recently in the news:

1.It is the world’s largest neutrino detector, encompassing a cubic kilometer of ice.

2.It is a powerful telescope to search for dark matter.

3.It is buried deep in the ice.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 6. With reference to ‘Near Field Communication (NFC) Technology, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. It is a contactless communication technology uses electromagnetic radio fields.

2. NFC is designed for use by devices which can be at a distance of even a metre from each other.

3. NFC can use encryption when sending sensitive information.

 Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only          

(b) 3 only        

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 7. Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development for 2014 was given to which one of the following?

(a)Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

(b)Indian Institute of Science

(c)Indian Space Research Organization

(d)Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

2014

Total Number of  Questions asked from S & T 6 /100:

Total Marks allotted to S & T is 12 Marks / 200 Total Marks.       

Q 1.With reference to technologies for solar power production, consider the following statements:

1. ‘Photovoltaics’ is a technology that generates electricity by direct conversion of light into electricity, while ‘Solar Thermal’ is a technology that utilizes the Sun’s rays to generate heat which is further used in electricity generation process.

2. Photovoltaics generates Alternating Current (AC), while Solar Thermal generates Direct Current (DC).

3. India has manufacturing base for Solar Thermal technology, but not for Photovoltaics.

 Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 1, 2 and 3  

(d) None

 

Q 2.With reference to Agni-IV Missile, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1.It is a surface-to-surface missile.

2.It is fuelled by liquid propellant only.

3.It can deliver one-tonne nuclear warheads about 7500 km away.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 3. In addition to fingerprint scanning, which of the following can be used in the biometric identification of a person?

1.Iris scanning

2.Retinal scanning

3.Voice recognition

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 4.Which of the following pairs is/ are correctly matched?

   Spacecraft                                                 Purpose

1.Cassini-Huygens        :           Orbiting the Venus and transmitting data to the Earth

2.Messenger                  :           Mapping and investigating the Mercury

3.Voyager 1 and 2         :           Exploring the outer solar system

 Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 5.Consider the following techniques / phenomena:

1.Budding and grafting in fruit plants

2.Cytoplasmic male sterility

3.Gene silencing

Which of the above is /are used to create transgenic crops?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3      

(c) 1 and 3      

(d) None

 

Q 6 . There is some concern regarding the nano particles of some chemical elements that are used by the industry in the manufacture of various products. Why?

1.They can accumulate in the environment, and contaminate water and soil.

2.They can enter the food chains.

3.They can trigger the production of free radicals.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only          

(b) 3 only        

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

2013

Total Number of  Questions asked from S & T  2 /100:

Total Marks allotted to S & T is 12  Marks / 200 Total Marks.       

Q 1. Mycorrhizal biotechnology has been used in rehabilitating degraded sites because mycorrhiza enables the plants to

1.Resist drought and increase absorptive area

2.Tolerate extremes of pH.

3.Resist disease infestation

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3      

(c) 1 and 3      

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 2.Recombinant DNA technology (Genetic Engineering) allows genes to be transferred

1.Across different species of plants

2.From animals to plants

3.From microorganisms to higher organisms

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3      

(c) 1 and 3      

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

2012

Total Number of  Questions asked from S & T  4 /100:

Total Marks allotted to

S & T  is 8  Marks / 200 Total Marks.       

 

Q 1. With reference to ‘stem cells’ frequently in the news, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1.Stem cells can be derived from mammals only.

2.Stem cells can be used for screening new drugs.

3.Stem cells can be used for medical therapies.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2      

(b) 2 and 3      

(c) 3 only        

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 2. To meet its rapidly growing energy demand, some opine that India should pursue research and development on thorium as the future fuel of nuclear energy. In this context, what advantage does thorium hold over Uranium?

1. Thorium is far more abundant in nature than Uranium.

2. On the basis of per unit mass of mined mineral, thorium can generate more energy compared to natural Uranium.

3. Thorium produces less harmful waste compared to Uranium.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 3.What are the reasons for the people’s resistance to the introduction of Bt brinjal in India?

1. Bt Brinjal has been created by inserting a gene from a soil fungus into its genome.

2. The seeds of Bt Brinjal are terminator seeds and therefore, the farmers have to buy the seeds before every season from the seed companies.

3. There is an apprehension that the consumption of Bt brinjal may have adverse impact on health.

4. There is some concern that the introduction of Bt. brinjal may have adverse effect on the biodiversity.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only      

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 3 and 4 only          

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

 

Q 4. Other than resistance to pests, what are the prospects for which genetically engineered plants have been created?

1.To enable them to withstand drought

2.To increase the nutritive value of the produce

3.To enable them to grow and do photosynthesis in spaceships and space stations

4.To increase their shelf life

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)1 and 2 only           

(b) 3 and 4 only          

(c) 1, 2 and 4 only      

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

 

2011

Total Number of  Questions asked from S & T 13 /100:

Total Marks allotted to S & T is 26 Marks / 200 Total Marks.       

Q 1. Satellites used for telecommunication relay are kept in a geostationary orbit. A satellite is said to be in such an orbit when:

1.The orbit is geosynchronous

2.The orbit is circular

3.The orbit lies in the plane of the Earth’s equator

4.The orbit is at an altitude of 22,236 km.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only      

(b) 1, 3 and 4 only      

(c) 2 and 4 only          

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

 

Q 2. At present, scientists can determine the arrangement or relative positions of genus of DNA sequences on a chromosome. How does this knowledge benefit us?

1.It is possible to know the pedigree of livestock.

2.It is possible to understand the causes of all human diseases.

3.It is possible to develop disease-resistant animal breeds.

 Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only          

(b) 2 only        

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 3.Microbial fuel cells are considered a source of sustainable energy. Why?

1. They use living organisms as catalysts to generate electricity from certain substrates.

2. They use a variety of inorganic materials as substrates.

3. They can be installed in waste water treatment plants to cleanse water and produce electricity.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 4. A genetically engineered form of brinjal, known as the Bt-brinjal, has been developed. The objective of this is

(a)To make it pest resistant

(b)To improve its taste and nutritive qualities

(c)To make is drought-resistant

(d)To make is shelf-life longer

 

Q 5.The function of heavy water in a nuclear reactor is to

(a)Slow down the speed of neutrons

(b)Increase the speed of neutrons

(c)Cool down the reactor

(d)Stop the nuclear reaction

 

Q 6. A company marketing food products advertises that its do not contain trans-fats. What does this campaign signify to the customers?

1.The food products are not made out of hydrogenated oils

2.The food products are not made out of animal fats/oils

3.The oils used are not likely to damage the cardiovascular health of the consumers

 Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 7.What is the difference between Blue-tooth and Wi-Fi devices?

(a). Bluetooth uses 2-4GHz radio frequency hand, whereas Wi-Fi can use 2-4GHz or 5GHz frequency band

(b). Bluetooth is used for Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) only, whereas Wi-Fi is used for Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWAN) only

(c). When information is transmitted between two devices using Blue-tooth technology, the devices have to be in the line of sight of each other, but when Wi-Fi technology is used the devices need not be in the line of sight of each other

(d). The statements (a) and (b) given above are correct in this context

 

Q 8. Aspartame is an artificial sweetener sold in the market. It consists of amino acids and provides calories like other amino acids. Yet, it is used as a low-calorie sweetening agent in food items. What is the basis of this use?

1. Aspartame is a sweet as table sugar, but unlike table sugar, is not readily oxidized in human body due to lack of requisite enzymes.

2. When aspartame is used in food processing, the sweet taste remains, but it becomes resistant to oxidation.

3. Aspartame is as sweet as sugar, but after ingestion into the body, it is converted into metabolites that yield no calories.

4. Aspartame is several times sweeter than table sugar, hence food items made with small quantities of aspartame yield fewer calories on oxidation.

 

Q 9. What is the difference between a CFL and an LED lamp?

1. To produce light, a CFL uses mercury vapour and phosphor while an LED lamp uses semi- conductor material.

2. The average life span of a CFL is much longer than that of an LED lamp.

3. A CFL is less energy-efficient as compared to an LED lamp.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 10. A new optical disc format known as the Blu-ray Disc (BD) is becoming popular. In what way is it different from the traditional DVD?

1. DVD supports Standard Definition video while BD supports High Definition video.

2. Compared to a DVD, the BD format has several times more storage capacity

3. Thickness of BD is 2.4mm while that of DVD is 1.2mm.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only  

(b) 1 and 2 only          

(c) 2 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 11. An artificial satellite orbiting around the Earth does not fall down. This is so because the attraction of earth

(a)Does not exist at such distance

(b)Is neutralized by the attraction of the moon

(c)Provides the necessary speed for its steady motion

(d)Provides the necessary acceleration for its motion

 

Q 12.What is “Virtual Private Network”?

It is a private computer network of an organisation where the remote users can transmit encrypted information through the server of the organisation

It is a computer network across a public internet that provides users access to their organisation’s network while maintaining the security of the information transmitted

It is a computer network in which users can access a shared pool of computing resources through a service provider

None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above is a correct description of Virtual Private Network

 

Q 13.Recently “oilzapper” was in the news. What is it?

(a)It is an eco-friendly technology for the remediation of oily sludge and oil spills

(b)It is the latest technology developed for under sea oil exploration

(c)It is a genetically engineered high bio-fuel yielding maize variety

(d)It is the latest technology to control the accidentally caused flames from oil wells

 

Last 8 Year Mains Question asked from Science & Technology Subject (Year Wise)

2018

Total Questions asked 2 /20: 1 Qs of 15 Marks, 1 Qs. of 10 Marks.

Total Marks allotted to Polity is 25 Marks / 250 Total Marks.

Q. 1

Discuss the work of ‘Bose-Einstein Statistics’ done by Prof. Satyendra Nath Bose and show how it revolutionized the field of Physics?

( 150 Words, 10 Marks)

Q. 2

Why is there so much activity in the field of biotechnology in our country? How has this activity benefitted the field of biopharma?

( 250 Words, 15 Marks)

2017

Total Questions asked 3 /20: 1 Qs of 15 Marks, 2 Qs. of 10 Marks.

Total Marks allotted to Polity is 35 Marks / 250 Total Marks.

Q. 1

Stem cell therapy is gaining popularity in India to treat a wide variety of medical conditions including Leukaemia, Thalassemia, damaged cornea and several burns. Describe briefly what stem cell therapy is and what advantages it has over other treatments?

( 150 Words, 10 Marks)

Q. 2

India has achieved remarkable successes in unmanned space missions including the Chandrayaan and Mars Orbitter Mission, but has not ventured into manned space mission, both in terms of technology and logistics? Explain critically.

( 150 Words, 10 Marks)

Q. 3

Give an account of the growth and development of nuclear science and technology in India. What is the advantage of fast breeder reactor programme in India?     

     ( 250 Words, 15 Marks)

2016

Total Questions asked 4 /20: 4 Qs of 12.5 Marks, 0 Qs. of 10 Marks.

Total Marks allotted to Polity is 50 Marks / 250 Total Marks.

Q. 1

Give an account of the current status and the targets to be achieved pertaining to renewable energy?

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

Q. 2

sources in the country. Discuss in brief the importance of National Programme on Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)?

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

Q. 3

Discuss India’s achievements in the field of Space Sciences and Technology. How the application of this technology has helped India in its socio- economic development?

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

Q. 4

Why is nanotechnology one of the key technologies of the 21st century? Describe the salient features of Indian Government’s Mission on Nanoscience and Technology and the scope of its application in the development process of the country?

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

2015

Total Questions asked 4 /20: 4 Qs of 12.5 Marks, 0 Qs. of 10 Marks.

Total Marks allotted to Polity is 50 Marks / 250 Total Marks.

Q. 1

What do you understand by ‘Standard Positioning Systems’ and `Precision Positioning Systems’ in the GPS era? Discuss the advantages India perceives from its ambitious IRNSS programme employing just seven satellites.

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

Q. 2

What are the areas of prohibitive labour that can be sustainably managed by robots? Discuss the initiatives that can propel research in premier research institutes for substantive and gainful innovation.

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

Q. 3

Discuss the advantages and security implications of cloud hosting of server’s vis-a-vis in-house machine-based hosting for government businesses.

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

Q. 4

India’s Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL), which has a database containing formatted information on more than 2 million medicinal formulations is proving a powerful weapon in the country’s fight against erroneous patents. Discuss the pros and cons of making this database publicly available under open-source licensing.

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

2014

Total Questions asked 3 /20 : 3 Qs of 12.5 Marks, 0 Qs. of 10 Marks.

Total Marks allotted to Polity is 37.5  Marks / 250 Total Marks.

 

Q. 1

Scientific research in Indian universities is declining because a career in science is not as attractive as are business professions, engineering or administration, and the universities are becoming consumer oriented. Critically comment.

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

Q. 2

Can overuse and free availability of antibiotics without Doctor’s prescription, be contributors to the emergence of drug-resistant diseases in India? What are the available mechanisms for monitoring and control? Critically discuss the various issues involved. 

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

Q. 3

In a globalized world, intellectual property rights assume significance and are a source of litigation. Broadly distinguish between the terms copyrights, patent and trade secrets.

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

2013

Total Questions asked 5 /20: 0 Qs of 12.5 Marks, 5 Qs. of 10 Marks.

Total Marks allotted to Polity is 50 Marks / 250 Total Marks.

Q. 1

What do you understand by Fixed Dose Drug Combinations (FDCs)? Discuss their merits and demerits.

(200 words, MARKS 10)

Q. 2

What do you understand by Umpire Decision Review System in Cricket? Discuss its various components. Explain how silicon tape on the edge of a bat may fool the system?

(200 words, MARKS 10)

Q. 3

 (a) What is a digital signature? What does its authentication mean? Give various salient built-in features of a digital signature.

(100 words, 5 Marks)

(b)How does the 3D printing technology work? List out the advantages anddisadvantagesofthe technology.

(100 words, 5 Marks)

Q. 4

 (a) What is an FRP composite material? How are they manufactured?Discuss their applications in aviation and automobile industries.

(100 words, 5 Marks)

(b)What do you understand by Run-of-river hydroelectricity project? How is it different fromany other hydroelectricity project?

(100 words, 5 Marks)

Q. 5

Bringing out the circumstances in 2005 which forced amendment to the section 3(d) in Indian Patent Law, 1970, discuss how it has been utilized by the Supreme Court in its judgment in rejecting Novratis’ patent application for ‘Glivec’. Discuss briefly the pros and cons of the decision.

(200 words, MARKS 10)

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