International Relation

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Syllabus Covered as per prescribed UPSC Syllabus
Prescribed UPSC Syllabus Topics Covered Subtopics Covered (Theory, MCQs, Subjective Ques.)
India and its neighborhood- relations India's Relation with its Neighbour, India & World

India's Relation with its Neighbour: India-Pakistan, India-Afghanistan, India-China, India-Nepal, India-Bhutan, India-Myammar, India-Bangladesh, India-Srilanka, India-Maldives.

India & World: Foreign Policy of India, India-USA, India-Russia, India-Japan, India-Africa, India-Europe, India-Israel, India-Mongolia, India-Australia, India-Brazil.

Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India's interests Regional Economic Blocks Regional Economic Blocks: Need of Regional Organisation, Process of Regional Integration, SAARC, ASEAN, RCEP, EUROPEAN UNION, BIMSTEC, APEC, ASEM, Mekong Ganga Co-operation, IOR-ARC, UNASUR, Mercosur, EAC, African Union, Arab League, GCC, BRICS, AfCFTA, EEU, SCO, TPP, TTIP, South-South- Coop-IBSA
Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India's interests, Indian diaspora Development of International Politics, Important Terms used in Foreign Diplomacy, India's Scheme and Programs, India's Foreign Policies

Development of International Politics: Global Politics.

Important Terms used in Foreign Diplomacy: Soft Power, Hard Power.

India's Scheme and Programs: India Development Foundation of Overseas Indians (IDF-OI).

India's Foreign Policies: Panchsheel, Act East and Look West Policies.

Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate United Nation Organisation (UNO), International Institution - Economic, International Groupings- Nuclear Sector, International Groupings- Env./Climate/Biodiversity, International Groupings- Projects, International Groupings- Misc. Sectors, World's Regional Issues

United Nations Organisation (UNO): League of Nation, UNO-Introduction, UNO-Principal Organs, UNO- Programs & Funds.

International Institution - Economic: World Bank & Groups, IMF, WTO, ADB, BIS, BRICS-NDB, OECD, FATF, IOSCO.

International Groupings- Nuclear Sector: IAEA, NSG, NPT, CTBT, IRAN Nuclear Deal, ITER, FMCT.

International Groupings- Env./Climate/Biodiversity: WWF, ISA, UNCED.

International Groupings- Projects: Transporation-International North-South Transport Corridor, Transporation-BBIN, Transporation-OBOR, Transporation-CPEC, Canal-KRA, Energy-TAPI.

International Groupings- Misc. Sectors: Military-NATO, Petro- OPEC, G-8, Amnesty International, Green Peace, Red Cross, Interpol, AARDO, Common Wealth, NAM.

World's Regional Issues: Yemen, Afghanistan, Rohingyas, North Korea, Kurdish Independence Referendum, Islamic Military Alliance to Fight Terrorism (IMAFT).

 


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Syllabus for Prelims Exam ("International relation" Highlighted Yellow)

PRELIMINARY EXAM:

Syllabus of PRELIMS Paper I (200 marks) Duration : 2 hours

  • Current events of national and international importance.

  •  History of India and Indian National Movement Indian.

  • World Geography - Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World Indian.

  • Polity and Governance - Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

  • Economic and Social Development - Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc.

  • General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change - that do not require subject specialization.

  • General Science.

Syllabus for Mains Exam ("International relation" Highlighted Yellow)

Syllabus for General Studies Paper -II:  (Paper II includes: Polity, Governance, Social Justice and International relations) Total: 250 Marks, Duration: 3 Hours

Indian Polity

  • Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

  • Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.

  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries

  • Parliament and State Legislatures - structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

  • Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

  • Salient features of the Representation of People's Act.

  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

 

SOCILA JUSTICE

  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

  • Development processes and the development industry the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders

  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections

  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources, issues relating to poverty and hunger.

GOVERNANCE

  • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

  • Role of civil services in a democracy.

INTERNATIONAL RELATION

  • India and its neighborhood- relations.

  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India's interests

  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India's interests, Indian diaspora.

  • Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.

 

Last 8 Year Prelims Question asked from International relation Subject (Year Wise)

2018

Total Number of  Questions asked from International Relation  7/100:

Total Marks allotted to International Relation  is 14 Marks / 200 Total Marks.

1.The Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE), a UN mechanism to assist countries transition towards greener and more inclusive economies, emerged at

(a)The Earth Summit on Sustainable Development 2002, Johannesburg

(b)The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development 2012, Rio de Janeiro

(c)The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 2015, Paris

(d)The World Sustainable Development Summit 2016, New Delhi

 

2.Which is/are the consequence/consequences of a country becoming the member of the “Nuclear Supplier Group”?

1.It will have access to the latest and most efficient nuclear technologies.

3.It automatically becomes a member of “The Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of the Nuclear Weapons (NPT)”.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2

 

3 .“Rule of Law Index” is released by which of the following?

(a)Amnesty International

(b)International Court of Justice

(c)The office of UN Commissioner for Human Rights

(d)World Justice Project

 

4 .In the Indian context, what is the implication of ratifying the ‘Additional Protocol’ with the ‘International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)’?

(a)The Civilian nuclear reactors come under IAEA safeguards.

(b)The military nuclear installations come under the inspection of IAEA.

(c)The country will have the privilege to buy Uranium from the Nuclear Supplier Groups (NSG).

(d)The country automatically becomes a member of NSG.

 

5 .Consider the following countries:

1.Australia

2.Canada

3.China

4.India

5.Japan

6.USA

Which of the above are among the ‘free trade partner’ of ASEAN?

(a)   1, 2, 4 and 5

(b)   3, 4, 5 and 6

(c)   1, 2, 3 and 5

(d)   2, 3, 4 and 6

 

6 .India enacted The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 in order to comply with the obligations to

(a)ILO

(b)IMF

(c)UNCTAD

(d)WTO

 

7.International Labour Organization’s Conventions 138 and 182 are related to

(a)Child labour

(b)Adaptation of agricultural practices to global climate change

(c)Regulation of food prices and food security

(d)Gender parity at the workplace

 

2017

Total Number of  Questions asked from International Relation  6/100:

Total Marks allotted to International Relation  is 12 Marks / 200 Total Marks.

 

1 .The Global Infrastructure Facility is a/an

(a)ASEAN initiative to upgrade infrastructure in Asia and financed by credit from the Asian Development Bank.

(b)World Bank collaboration that facilitates the preparation and structuring of complex infrastructure Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) to enable mobilization of private sector and institutional investor capital.

(c)Collaboration among the major banks of the world working with the OECD and focused on expanding the set of infrastructure projects that have the potential to mobilize private investment.

(d)UNCTAD funded initiative that seeks to finance and facilitate infrastructure development in the world.

 

2. .With reference to the role of UN-Habitat in the United Nations programme working towards a better urban future, which of the statements is/are correct?

  1. UN-Habitat has been mandated by the United Nations General Assembly to promote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities to provide adequate shelter for all.

  2. Its partners are either governments or local urban authorities only.

  3. UN-Habitat contributes to the overall objective of the United Nations system to reduce poverty and to promote access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1, 2 and 3

(b)1 and 3 only

(c)2 and 3 only

(d)1 only

 

3.Consider the following in respect of Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS):

1.Inaugural IONS was held in India in 2015 under the chairmanship of the Indian Navy.

2.IONS is a voluntary initiative that seeks to increase maritime co-operation among navies of the littoral states of the Indian Ocean Region.

Which of the above statements Ware correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor

 

4.Consider the following statements:

1.The Nuclear Security Summits are periodically held under the aegis of the United Nations.

2.The International Panel on Fissile Materials is an organ of International Atomic Energy Agency. Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2

 

5.With reference to 'Asia Pacific Ministerial Conference on Housing and Urban Development (APMCHUD)', consider the following statements :

1.The first APMCHUD was held in India in 2006 on the theme 'Emerging Urban Forms — Policy; Responses and Governance Structure'.

2.India hosts all the Annual Ministerial Conferences in partnership with ADD. APEC and ASEAN. Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2

 

6.The term 'Digital Single Market Strategy' seen in the news refers to

(a)ASEAN

(b)BRICS

(c)EU

(d)G20

2016

Total Number of  Questions asked from International Relation  6/100:

Total Marks allotted to International Relation  is 12 Marks / 200 Total Marks.

1.Consider the following pairs:

COMMUNITY SOMETIMES MENTIONED IN THE NEWS

 

IN THE AFFAIRS OF

  1. Kurd

Bangladesh

  1. Madhesi

Nepal

  1. Rohingya

Myanmar

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

(a)  1 and 2     

(b) 2 only

(c) 2 and 3      

(d) 3 only

 

2.With reference to ‘Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW); consider the following statements:

1.It is an organization of European Union in working relation with NATO and WHO.

2.It monitors chemical industry to prevent new weapons from emerging.

3.It provides assistance and protection to States (Parties) against chemical weapons threats.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

3.‘Belt and Road Initiative’ is sometimes mentioned in the news in the context of the affairs of

(a)Africa Union

(b)Brazil

(c)European Union

(d)China

 

4.Which of the following is not a member of ‘Gulf Cooperation Council’?

(a)Iran

(b)Saudi Arabia

(c)Oman

(d)Kuwait

 

5.‘Doctors Without Borders (Medecins Sans Frontieres)’, often in the news, is

(a) A division of World Health Organization

(b) A non-governmental international organization

(c) An inter-governmental agency sponsored by European Union

(d) A Specialized agency of the United Nations

 

6.Consider the following statements: The India – Africa Summit

1.held in 2015 was the third such Summit

2.was actually initiated by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1951

 Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 only        

(c) Both 1 and 2         

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

2015

Total Number of  Questions asked from International Relation  7/100:

Total Marks allotted to International Relation  is 14 Marks / 200 Total Marks.

 

1.Amnesty International is

(a) An agency of the United Nations to help refugees of civil wars

(b) A global Human Rights Movement

(c) A non-governmental voluntary organization to help very poor people

(d) An inter-governmental agency to cater to medical emergencies in war-revaged regions

 

2.India is a member of which among the following?

1.Asia-Pacific Economic cooperation

2.Association of South-East Asian Nations

3.East Asia Summit

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only          

(b) 3 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3  

(d) India is a member of none of them

 

3.In the Mekong-Ganga Cooperation, an initiative of six countries, which of the following is/are not a participant/ participant?

1.Bangladesh

2.Cambodia

3.China

4.Myanmar

5.Thailand

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2, 3 and 4  

(c) 1 and 3      

(d) 1, 2 and 5

 

4. With reference to ‘Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC)’, consider the following statements:

1.It was established very recently in response to incidents of piracy and accidents of oil spills.

2.It is an alliance meant for maritime security only

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 only        

(c) Both 1 and 2         

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

5.Consider the following countries:

1.China           

2. France        

3. India           

4. Israel          

5. Pakistan

 

6.Which among the above are Nuclear Weapons States as recognized by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)?

(a) 1 and 2      

(b) 1, 3, 4 and 5          

(c) 2, 4 and 5  

(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

7 .The area known as ‘Golan Heights’ sometimes appears in the news in the context of the events related to

(a)Central Asia

(b)Middle East

(c)South-East Asia

(d)Central Africa

 

2014

Total Number of  Questions asked from International Relation  3/100:

Total Marks allotted to International Relation  is 6 Marks / 200 Total Marks.

 

1.Consider the following countries:

1.Denmark

2.Japan

3.Russian Federation

4.United Kingdom

5.United States of America

Which of the above are the members of the ‘Arctic Council’?

(a) 1, 2 and 3  

(b) 2, 3 and 4  

(c) 1, 4 and 5  

(d) 1, 3 and 5

 

2.With reference to a grouping of countries known as BRICS, consider the following statements:

1.The First Summit of BRICS was held in Rio de Janeiro in 2009.

2.South Africa was the last to join the BRICS grouping.

Which of the statements given above is / are correct?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 only        

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

3.Recently, a series of uprisings of people referred to as ‘Arab Spring’ originally started from

(a)Egypt

(b)Lebanon

(c)Syria

(d)Tunisia

 

2011

Total Number of  Questions asked from International Relation  4/100:

Total Marks allotted to International Relation  is 8 Marks / 200 Total Marks.

 

1.With reference to Look East Policy of India, consider the following statements:

  1. Indian wants to establish itself as an important regional player in the East Asian Affairs

  2. India wants to plug the vacuum created by the termination of cold War

  3. India wants to restore the historical and cultural ties with its neighbours in Southeast and East Asia

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 1 and 3 only

(c) 3 only        

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

2. Southeast Asia has captivated the attention of global community over space and time as a geostrategically significant region. Which among the following is the most convincing explanation for this global perspective?

(a)It was the hot theatre during the Second World War

(b)Its location between the Asian powers of Chins and India

(c)It was the arena of superpower confrontation during the Cold War period

(d)Its location between the Pacific and Indian oceans and its pre-eminent maritime character.

 

3. Recently, the USA decided to support India’s membership in multi-lateral export control regimes called the “Australia Group” and the “Wassenaar Arrangement”. What is the difference between them?

  1. The Australia Group is an informal arrangement which aims to allow exporting countries to minimize the risk of assisting chemical and biological weapons proliferation, whereas the Wassenaar Arrangement is a formal group under the OECD holding identical objectives.

  2. The Australia Group comprise predominantly of Asian, African and North American countries, whereas the member countries of Wassenaar Arrangement are pre-dominantly from the European Union  and  American continents.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 only        

(c) Both 1 and 2         

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

4.The “New START” treaty was in the news. What is this treaty?

  1. It is a bilateral strategic nuclear arms reduction treaty between the USA and the Russian Federation

  2. It is a multilateral energy security cooperation treaty among the members of the East Asia Summit

  3. It is a treaty between the Russian Federationand the European Union for the energy security cooperation

  4. It is a multilateral cooperation treaty among the BRICS countries for the promotion of trade

Last 8 Year Mains Question asked from International relation Subject (Year Wise)

2018

Total Questions  asked 4 / 20: 2 Qs. of 15 Marks, 2 Qs. of 10 Marks.

Total Marks allotted to International Relation is 50 Marks / 250 Total Marks.

Q. 1 

A number or outside powers have entrenched themselves in Central Asia, which is a zone to interest to India. Discuss the implications, in this context, of India’s joining the Ashgabat Agreement, 2018.

(150 Words ,10 Marks)

Q. 2 

 ‘India’s relations with Israel have, of late, acquired a depth and diversity, which cannot be rolled back.” Discuss.

(150 Words ,10 Marks)

Q. 3 

In what ways would the ongoing US-Iran Nuclear Pact Controversy affect the national interest of India? How should India respond to this situation?

(250 Words ,15 Marks)

Q. 4 

What are the key areas of reform if the WTO has to survive in the present context of ‘Trade War’, especially keeping in mind the interest of India?

(250 Words ,15 Marks)

2017

Total Questions asked  4 / 20: 2 Qs. of 15 Marks, 2 Qs. of 10 Marks.

Total Marks allotted to International Relation is 50 Marks / 250 Total Marks.

 

Q. 1 

What are the main functions of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)? Explain different functional commissions attached to it.

(150 Words, 10 Marks)

Q. 2 

 ‘China is using its economic relations and positive trade surplus as tools to develop potential military power status in Asia’, In the light of this statement, discuss its impact on India as her neighbor.

(150 Words, 10 Marks)

Q. 3 

The question of India’s Energy Security constitutes the most important part of India’s economic progress. Analyze India’s energy policy cooperation with West Asian Countries.

(250 Words ,15 Marks)

Q. 4 

Indian Diaspora has an important role to play in South-East Asian countries’ economy and society. Appraise the role of Indian Diaspora in South- East Asia in this context

(250 Words ,15 Marks)

 

2016

Total Questions asked 6 / 20: 6 Qs. of 12.5 Marks, 0 Qs. of 10 Marks.

Total Marks allotted to International Relation is 75 Marks / 250 Total Marks.

General Studies 1

Q. 1 

South China Sea has assumed great geopolitical significance in the present context. Comment.

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

Q. 2 

Present an account of the Indus Water Treaty and examine its ecological, economic and political implications in the context of changing bilateral relations.      

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

General Studies 2

Q. 3 

The boarder aims and objectives of WTO are to manage and promote international trade in the era of globalization. But the Doha round of negotiations seem doomed due to differences between the developed and the developing countries. “Discuss in the Indian Perspective.

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

Q. 4 

Evaluate the economic and strategic dimensions of India’s Look East Policy in the context of the post-Cold War international scenario.

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

Q. 5 

 “Increasing cross-border terrorist attacks in India and growing interference in the internal affairs of several member-states by Pakistan are not conductive for the future of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation).” Explain with suitable examples.

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

Q. 6 

What are the aims and objectives of the McBride Commission of the UNESCO? What is India’s position on these?

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

2015

Total Questions asked 4 / 20: 4 Qs. of 12.5 Marks, 0 Qs. of 10 Marks.

Total Marks allotted to International Relation is 50 Marks / 250 Total Marks.

Q. 1 

Increasing interest of India in Africa has its pros and cons. Critically examine.  

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

Q. 2 

Discuss the impediments India is facing in its pursuit of a permanent seat in UN Security Council.

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

Q. 3 

Project ‘Mausam’ is considered as a unique foreign policy initiative of the Indian government to improve relationship with its neighbours. Does the project have a strategic dimension? Discuss.     

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

Q. 4 

Terrorist activities and mutual distrust have clouded India-Pakistan relations. To what extent the use of soft power like sports and cultural exchanges could help to generate goodwill between the two countries? Discuss with suitable examples

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

2014

Total Questions asked  5 / 20: 5 Qs. of 12.5 Marks, 0 Qs. of 10 Marks.

Total Marks allotted to International Relation is 62.5 Marks / 250 Total Marks.

Q. 1 

With respect to the South China Sea, maritime territorial disputes and rising tension affirm the need for safe guarding maritime security to ensure freedom of navigation and over flight throughout the region. In this context, discuss the bilateral issues between India and China. (200 words) 

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

Q. 2 

The aim of Information Technology Agreements (ITAs) is to lower all taxes and tariffs on information technology products by signatories to zero. What impact would such agreements have on India’s interests? (200 words)        

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

Q. 3 

Some of the International funding agencies have special terms for economic participation stipulating a substantial component of the aid to be used for sourcing equipment from the leading countries. Discuss on merits of such terms and if, there exist a strong case not to accept such conditions in the Indian context. (200 words)

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

Q. 4 

India has recently signed to become founding member of New Development Bank (NDB) and also the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB). How will the role of the two banks be different? Discuss the strategic significance of these two banks for India. (200 words)       

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

Q. 5 

WTO is an important international institution were decisions taken affect countries in a profound manner. What is the mandate of WTO and how binding are their decisions? Critically analyse India’s stand on the latest round of talks on Food security. (200 words)       

(200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

2013

Total Questions asked 8 / 25: 0 Qs. of 12.5 Marks, 8 Qs. of 10 Marks.

Total Marks allotted to International Relation is 80 Marks / 250 Total Marks.

Q. 1 

The proposed withdrawal of International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) from Afghanistan in 2014 is fraught with major security implications for the countries of the region. Examine in light of the fact that India is faced with a plethora of challenges and needs to safeguard its own strategic interests.

(200 Words, 10 Marks)

Q. 2 

What do you understand by The String of Pearls’? How does it impact India? Briefly outline the steps taken by India to counter this.  

(200 Words, 10 Marks)

Q. 3 

Economic ties between India and Japan while growing in the recent years are still far below their potential. Elucidate the policy constraints which are inhibiting this growth.         

(200 Words, 10 Marks)

Q. 4 

The protests in Shahbag Square in Dhaka in Bangladesh reveal a fundamental split in society between the nationalists and Islamic forces. What is its significance for India?          

(200 Words, 10 Marks)

Q. 5 

Discuss the political developments in Maldives in the last two years. Should they be of any cause of concern to India?   

(200 Words, 10 Marks)

Q. 6 

In respect of India-Sri Lanka relations, discuss how domestic factors influence foreign policy.

(200 Words, 10 Marks)

Q. 7 

What is meant by Gujral doctrine? Does it have any relevance today? Discuss.        

(200 Words, 10 Marks)

Q. 8 

The World Bank and the IMF, collectively known as the Bretton Woods Institutions, are the two inter- governmental pillars supporting the structure of the world’s economic and financial order. Superficially, the World Bank and the IMF exhibit many common characteristics, yet their role, functions and mandate are distinctly different. Elucidate.          

(200 Words, 10 Marks)

 

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