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Syllabus Covered as per prescribed UPSC Syllabus (Updated with Current Affairs)

Prescribed UPSC Syllabus

Topics Covered

Sub Topics Covered ( Theory, MCQ, Subjective Ques.)

Environment-Ecology

Environment and Ecology, Types of Ecosystem.

Environment and Ecology :
Introduction, Ecosystem,  Functions of Ecosystem,  Biotic Interaction,  Nutrient Cycles, Definitions.

Types of Ecosystem: Forest,  Desert, Aquatic.

Biodiversity

Biodiversity

Plant and Animal Biodiversity.

Climate Change

Climate Change, Acidification, Ozone Depletion

Climate Change: Climate Change Global Warming.

Acidification: Acid Rain,  Types of Acid Deposition,  pH scale, Sources of compound causing Acid Rain,  Common characteristics of acid rain areas,  Chemistry of Acid Rain,  Impact of acid rain,  Trigger effect of Acid rain on Pollutants,  Control measures,  Ocean Acidification,  Causes of Ocean Acidification,  Effects of Ocean Acidification,  Mitigation of Acidification.

Ozone Depletion: Ozone,  Ozone Depletion,  Causes of Ozone Depletion,  Chemistry of formation and depletion of Ozone,
 The ozone hole,  Effects of Ozone Depletion.

Conservation

Conservation Efforts, Environmental Organisation, Mitigation Strategies, Environmental International Conventions, Wildlife Acts and Policies, Environmental Institutions and Measures

Environmental International Conventions: List of Important conventions,  UN Conference on Env. & Dev. (UNCED),  CBD, Ramsar Convention on Wetlands,  CITES,  TRAFFIC,  CMS,  ITTO,  UN Forum on Forest,  Collaborative Partnership on Forests,  IUCN, Global Tiger Forum,  Stockholm Convention on POP,  Basel Convention,  Rotterdam Convention,  UNCCD, International Whaling Commission,  Vienna Convention,  GIAHS.


Wildlife Acts and Policies: WLPA 1972,  EPA 1896,  National Forest Policy 1988,  BDA 2002,  ST&OTFD Act 2006,  CRZ,  Wetland Rules,  ODS Rules.

Environmental Institutions and Measures: National Wildlife Action Plan,  National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board,  Green India Mission,  CAMPA, Joint Forest Management,  Social forestry,  National Bamboo Mission,  Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index, Lighting A Billion Lives, Eco Mark,  Urban Services, Environmental Rating System (USERS),  Biodiversity Conservation & Rural Livelihood Improvement Project (BCRLIP),  National Clean Energy Fund,  National Electric Mobility Mission Plan,  Eco Club,  Mangroves For Future.


Conservation Efforts: Tiger Reserve, Project Elephant,  Vulture, One Horn Rhino,  Project Snow Leopard,  Sea Turtle,  Crocodile, Conservation Project,  Project Hangul,  Dolphins.

Environmental Organisation: Introduction,  Intergovernmental Organisations,  International Non-Governmental Organisations,  National Statutory Environmental Organisation,  National Autonomous Research and Development Organisation, National Non-Governmental Organisation,  Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC),  United Nation Environment Program (UNEP),  Global Environment Facility (GEF),  World Wide Fund for Nature,  Conservation International,  Earthwatch Institute, Wetland International,  International Union for Conservation of Nature,  Greenpeace Foundation,  Central Pollution Control Board,
 Central ZOO Authority,  Wildlife Crime Control Board, National Biodiversity Authority,  National Tiger Conservation Authority,  National Board of Wildlife,  Animal Welfare Board of India,  Botanical Survey of India,  Zoological Survey of India, Forest Survey of India,  Wildlife Institute of India,  World Wide Fund – India,  Wildlife Trust of India,  Indian Environmental Society, Centre for Science and Environment,  Summary.


Mitigation Strategies: Introduction,  Goals of Mitigation,  Carbon Sequestration,  Carbon Sink and Carbon Source,  Blue Carbon Initiative,  International Corporations,  Carbon Credit,  Carbon Offsetting,  Carbon Tax,  India and Carbon Tax, Geo-Engineering, Pros of Geo-Engineering,  Cons of Geo-Engineering.

Environmental pollution and degradation

Environmental Pollution, Waste Management

Environmental Pollution: Water Pollution, Air Pollution,  Soil Pollution,  Noise Pollution,  Plastic Pollution, Major Pollutants, Man-Made Pollution,  Diseases due to Environmental Pollution,  Mitigation Efforts,  Bioremediation.


Waste Management: Waste to Energy,  Solid Waste.

 

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Syllabus for Prelims Exam ("Environment" Highlighted Yellow)

PRELIMINARY EXAM:

Syllabus of PRELIMS Paper I (200 marks) Duration : 2 hours

 

  • Current events of national and international importance.

  •  History of India and Indian National Movement Indian.

  • World Geography - Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World Indian.

  • Polity and Governance - Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

  • Economic and Social Development - Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc.

  • General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change - that do not require subject specialization.

  • General Science.

 

Syllabus for Mains Exam ("Environment" Highlighted Yellow)

Paper VI - General Studies III - 250 Marks

(Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management)

Economic Development

  • Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management.
  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions;economics of animal-rearing.
  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Land reforms in India.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment models.

Technology

  • Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

Bio-diversity, Environment

  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Disaster and disaster management.

 

Security

  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention.
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism.
  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

Last 8 Year Prelims Question asked from Environment Subject (Year Wise)

2018

Total Number of  Questions asked from Environment & Disaster 11/100:

Total Marks allotted to Environment & Disaster is 22 Marks / 200 Total Marks.

 

Q 1. In which one of the following State is Pakhui Wildlife Sanctuary located?

(a) Arunachal Pradesh

(b) Manipur

(c) Meghalaya

(d) Nagaland

 

Q 2. Consider the following statement:

1. The definition of “Critical Wildlife Habitat” is incorporated in the Forest Rights Act, 2006.

2. For the first time in India, Baigas have been given Habitat Rights.

3. Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change officially decides and declares Habitat Rights for Primitive and Vulnerable Tribal Groups in any part of India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 3. Consider the following:

1. Birds

2. Dust blowing

3. Rain

4. Wind blowing

Which of the above spread plant diseases ?

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 3 and 4 only

(c) 1, 2 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

 

Q 4. Which of the following leaf modifications occur(s) in the desert areas to inhibit water loss?

1. Hard and waxy leaves

2. Tiny Leaves

3. Thorns instead of leaves

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 2 and 3 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 5. “Momentum for change : Climate Neutral Now” is an initiative launched by

(a) The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

(b) The UNEP Secretariat

(c) The UNFCCC Secretariat

(d) The World Meteorological Organisation

 

Q 6. With reference to the ‘Global Alliance for Climate –Smart Agriculture (GACSA)’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. GACSA is an outcome of the Climate Summit held in Paris in 2015.

2. Membership of GACSA does not create any binding obligations.

3. India was instrumental in the creation of GACSA Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1,2 and 3

 

Q 7. Which of the following statements best describes “carbon fertilization” ?

(a) Increased plant growth due to increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

(b) Increased temperature of Earth due to increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

(c) Increased acidity of oceans as a result of increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

(d) Adaptation of all living being on Earth to all climate change brought about by the increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

 

Q 8. Which of the following is/are the possible consequence/s of heavy sand mining in riverbeds?

1. Decreased salinity in the river

2. Pollution of groundwater

3. Lowering of the water-table

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 9. How is the National Green Tribunal (NGT) different from the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)

1. The NGT has been established by an Act whereas the CPCB has been created by executive order of the Government.

2. The NGT provides environmental justice and helps reduce the burden of litigation in the higher courts whereas the CPCB promotes cleanliness of streams and wells, and aims to improve the quality of air in the country.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Q 10. Consider the following statements:

1. Most of the world’s coral reefs are in tropical water.

2. More than one-third of the world’s coral reefs are located in the territories of Australia, Indonesia and Philippines.

3. Coral reefs host far more number of animal phyla than those hosted by tropical rainforests. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1,2 and 3

 

Q 11. Why is a plant called Prosopis juliflora often mentioned in news?

(a) Its extract is widely used in cosmetics.

(b) It tends to reduce the biodiversity in the area in which it grows.

(c) Its extract is used in the synthesis of pesticides.

(d) None of the above.

 

2017

Total Number of  Questions asked from Environment & Disaster 12/100:

Total Marks allotted to Environment & Disaster is 24 Marks / 200 Total Marks.

Q 1. If you want to see gharials in their natural habitat, which one of the following is the best place to visit?

(a) Bhitarkanika Mangroves

(b) Chambal River

(c) Pulicat Lake

(d) DeeporBeel

                    

Q 2. The term 'M-STrIPES' is sometimes seen in the news in the context of

(a) Captive breeding of Wild Fauna

(b) Maintenance of Tiger Reserves

(c) Indigenous Satellite Navigation System

(d) Security of National Highways

 

Q 3. In India, if a species of tortoise is declared protected under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972, what does it imply?

(a) It enjoys the same level of protection as the tiger.

(b) It no longer exists in the wild a few individuals are under captive protection; and now it is impossible to prevent its extinction.

(c) It is endemic to a particular region of India.

(d) Both (b)   and (c)    stated above are correct in this context.

 

Q 4. According to the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, which of the following animals cannot be hunted by any person except under some provisions provided by law?

1. Gharial

2. Indian wild ass

3. Wild buffalo

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 5. Recently there was a proposal to translocate some of the lions from their natural habitat in Gujarat to which one of the following sites?

(a) Corbett National Park

(b) KunoPalpur Wildlife Sanctuary

(c) Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary

(d) Sariska National Park

 

Q 6. Consider the following statements in respect of Trade Related Analysis of Fauna and Flora in Commerce (TRAFFIC) :

1. TRAFFIC is a bureau under United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

2. The mission of TRAFFIC is to ensure that trade in wild plants and animals is not a threat to the conservation of nature.

Which of the above statements is/are correct ?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Q7. Due to some reasons, if there is a huge fall in the population of species of butterflies, what could be its likely consequence/consequences ?

1. Pollination of some plants could be adversely affected.

2. There could be a drastic increase in the fungal infections of some cultivated plants.

3. It could lead to a fall in the population of some species of wasps, spiders and birds.

Select the correct answer using the code given below :

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 8. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a standard criterion for

(a) Measuring oxygen levels in blood

(b) Computing oxygen levels in forest ecosystems

(c) Pollution assay in aquatic ecosystems

(d) Assessing oxygen levels in high altitude regions

 

Q 9. Consider the following statements:

1. Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) to Reduce Short Lived Climate Pollutants is a unique initiative of G20 group of countries.

2. The CCAC focuses on methane, black carbon and hydro fluorocarbons.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both l and 2

(d) Neither I nor 2

 

Q 10. In the context of solving pollution problems, what is/are the advantage/advantages of bioremediation technique?

1. It is a technique for cleaning up pollution by enhancing the same biodegradation process that occurs in nature.

2. Any contaminant with heavy metals such as cadmium and lead can be readily and completely treated by bioremediation using microorganisms.

3.Genetic engineering can be used to create microorganisms specifically designed for bioremediation.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c)  l and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 11. With reference to 'Global Climate Change Alliance', which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. It is an initiative of the European Union.

2. It provides technical and financial support to targeted developing countries to integrate climate change into their development policies and budgets.

3. It is coordinated by World Resources Institute (WRI) and World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD).

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 12.  In the context of mitigating the impending global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, which of the following can be the potential sites for carbon sequestration ?

1.  Abandoned and uneconomic coal seams

2.  Depleted oil and gas reservoirs

3.  Subterranean deep saline formations

Select the correct answer using the code given below :

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

2016

Total Number of  Questions asked from Environment & Disaster 11/100:

Total Marks allotted to Environment & Disaster is 22 Marks / 200 Total Marks.

Q 1. What is/are the importance/importances of the ‘United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification’?

1. It aims to promote effective action through innovative national programmes and supportive international partnerships.

2. It has a special/particular focus on ‘South Asia and North Africa regions’ and its Secretariat facilitates the allocation of major portion of financial resources to these regions.

3. It is committed to bottom-up approach, encouraging the participation of local people in combating the desertification.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 2. In which of the following regions of India are you most likely to come across the ‘Great Indian Hornbill’ in its natural habitat?

(a) Sand deserts of northwest India

(b) Higher Himalayas of Jammu and Kashmir

(c) Salt marshes of western Gujarat

(d) Western Ghats

 

Q 3. Which of the following are the key features of ‘National Ganga River basin Authority (NGRBA)?

1. River basin is the unit of planning and management.

2. It spearheads the river conservation efforts at the national level.

3. One of the Chief Ministers of the States through which the Ganga flows becomes the Chairman of NGBRA on rotation basis.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only          

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 4. What is/are unique about ‘Kharai camel’, a breed found in India?

1. It is capable of swimming up to three kilometres in seawater.

2. It survives by grazing on mangroves.

3. It lives in the wild and cannot be domesticated.

 Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only          

(b) 3 only        

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 5. Recently, our scientists have discovered a new and distinct species of banana plant which attains a height of about 11 metres and has orange-coloured fruit pulp. In which part of India has it been discovered?

(a) Andaman Islands

(b) Anaimalai Forests

(c) Maikala Hills

(d) Tropical rain forests of northeast.

 

Q 6. With reference to an initiative called “The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB)’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. It is an initiative hosted by UNEP, IMF and World Economic Forum.

2. It is a global initiative that focuses on drawing attention to the economic benefits of biodiversity.

3. It presents an approach that can help decision-makers recognize, demonstrate and capture the value of ecosystems and biodiversity.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only          

(b) 3 only        

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 7. With reference to ‘Red Sanders’, sometimes seen in the news, consider the following statements:

1. It is a tree species found in a part of South India.

2. It is one of the most important trees in the tropical rain forest areas of South India.

 Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 only        

(c) Both 1 and 2         

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Q 8.  With reference to ‘Agenda 21’, sometimes seen in the news, consider the following statements:

1. It is a global action plan for sustainable development.

2. It originated in the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 only        

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Q 9.  ‘Gadgil Committee Report’ and ‘Kasturirangan Committee Report’, sometimes seen in the news, are related to

(a) Constitutional reforms

(b) Ganga Action Plan

(c) Linking of rivers

(d) Protection of Western Ghats

 

Q 10.  Recently, for the first time in our country, which of the following states has declared a particular butterfly as ‘State Butterfly’?

(a) Arunachal Pradesh

(b) Himachal Pradesh

(c) Karnataka

(d) Maharashtra

 

Q 11.  In the cities of our country, which among the following atmospheric gases are normally considered in calculating the value of Air Quality Index?

1. Carbon dioxide.

2. Carbon monoxide

3. Nitrogen dioxide

4. Sulfur dioxide

5. Methane

Select the correct answer using the code given below

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only      

(b) 2, 3 and 4 only      

(c) 1, 4 and 5 only      

(d) 1,2,3,4 and 5

2015

Total Number of  Questions asked from Environment & Disaster 15/100:

Total Marks allotted to Environment & Disaster is 30 Marks / 200 Total Marks.

 

Q 1.  Which of the following National Parks is unique in being a swamp with floating vegetation that supports a rich biodiversity?

1. Bhitarkanika National Park

2. Keibul Lamjao National Park

3. Keoladeo Ghana National Park

4. Sultanpur National Park

Q 2.  With reference to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. IUCN is an organ of the United Nations and CITES is an international agreement between governments.

2. IUCN runs thousands of field projects around the world to better manage natural environments.

3. CITES is legally binding on the States that have joined it, but this Convention does not take the place of national laws.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 3. With reference to ‘dugong’, a mammal found in India, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. It is an herbivorous marine animal.

2. It is found along the entire coast of India.

3. It is given legal protection under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2      

(b) 2 only        

(c) 1 and 3      

(d) 3 only

 

Q 4.  Which one of the following is the national aquatic animal of India?

(a) Saltwater crocodile

(b) Olive ridley turtle

(c) Gangetic dolphin  

(d) Gharial

 

Q 5. Which one of the following regions of India has a combination of mangrove forest, evergreen forest and deciduous forest?

(a) North Coastal Andhra Pradesh

(b) South-West Bengal

(c) Southern Saurashtra

(d) Andaman and Nicobar Islands

 

 

Q 6.What is Rio+20 Conference, often mentioned in the news?

(a) It is the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development

(b)  It is a Ministerial Meeting of the World Trade Organization

(c) It is a Conference of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change

(d) It is a Conference of the Member Countries of the Convention on Biological Diversity

 

Q 7. Which of the following National Parks has a climate that varies from tropical to subtropical, temperate and arctic?

(a) Khangchendzonga National Park

(b) Nandadevi National Park

(c) Neora Valley National Park

(d) Namdapha National Park

 

Q 8. The Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee is constituted under the

(a) Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006

(b) Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999

(c) Environment (Protection) Act, 1986

(d) Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972

 

Q 9. Consider the following States:

1. Arunachal Pradesh

2. Himachal Pradesh

3. Mizoram

In which of the above States do ‘Tropical Wet Evergreen Forests’ occur?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 10.  With reference to an organisation known as ‘BirdLife International’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. It is a Global Partnership of Conservation Organizations.

2. The concept of ‘biodiversity hotspots’ originated from this organization.

3. It identifies the sites known/referred to as ‘Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas’.

 Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 11. In India, in which one of the following types of forests is teak a dominant tree species?

(a) Tropical moist deciduous forest

(b) Tropical rain forest

(c) Tropical thorn scrub forest

(d) Temperate forest with grasslands

 

Q 12.  Which one of the following is the best description of the term ‘ecosystem’?

1. A community of organisms interacting with one another

2. That part of the Earth which is inhabited by living organisms

3. A community of organisms together with the environment in which they live

4. The flora and fauna of a geographical area

 

Q 13. With reference to ‘fly ash’ produced by the power plants using coal as fuel, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. Fly ash can be used in the production of bricks for building construction.

2. Fly ash can be used as a replacement for some of the Portland cement contents of concrete.

3. Fly ash is made up of silicon dioxide and calcium oxide only, and does not contain any toxic elements.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2      

(b) 2 only        

(c) 1 and 3      

(d) 3 only

 

Q 14. With reference to bio-toilets used by the Indian Railways, consider the following statements:

1. The decomposition of human waste in the bio-toilets is initiated by a fungal inoculum.

2. Ammonia and water vapour are the only end products in this decomposition which are released into the atmosphere.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 only        

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Q 15.With reference to ‘fuel cells’ in which hydrogen-rich fuel and oxygen are used to generate electricity, consider the following statements:

1. If pure hydrogen is used as a fuel, the fuel cell emits heat and water as by-products.

2. Fuel cells can be used for powering buildings and not for small devices like laptop computers.

3. Fuel cells produce electricity in the form of Alternating Current (AC).

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

2014

Total Number of  Questions asked from Environment & Disaster 25/100:

Total Marks allotted to Environment & Disaster is 50  Marks / 200 Total Marks.

 

 

Q 1.  If a wetland of international importance is brought under the ‘Montreux Record’, what does it imply?

(a) Changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring or are likely to occur in the wetland as a result of human interference

(b) The country in which the wetland is located should enact a law to prohibit any human activity within five kilometres from the edge of the wetland

(c) The survival of the wetland depends on the cultural practices and traditions of certain communities living in its vicinity and therefore the cultural diversity therein should not be destroyed

(d) It is given the status of ‘World Heritage Site’

 

Q 2. Consider the following pairs:

1. Dampa Tiger Reserve                 :           Mizoram

2. Gumti Wildlife Sanctuary             :           Sikkim

3. Saramati Peak                             :           Nagaland

Which of the above pairs is / are correctly matched?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1,2 and 3

 

Q 3. With reference to a conservation organization called ‘Wetlands international’, which of the following statements is /are correct?

1. It is an intergovernmental organization formed by the countries which are signatories to Ramsar Convention.

2. It works at the field level to develop and mobilize knowledge, and use the practical experience to advocate for better policies.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a)  1 only        

(b) 2 only        

(c) Both 1 and 2         

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Q 4.  Other than poaching, what are the possible reasons for the decline in the population of Ganges River Dolphins?

1. Construction of dams and barrages on rivers

2. Increase in the population of crocodiles in rivers

3. Getting trapped in fishing nets accidentally

4. Use of synthetic fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals in crop-fields in the vicinity of rivers.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only          

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 1,3 and 4 only       

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

 

Q 5.Which of the following adds/add carbon dioxide to the carbon cycle on the planet Earth?

1. Volcanic action

2. Respiration

3. Photosynthesis

4. Decay of organic matter

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 3 only          

(b) 2 only        

(c) 1, 2 and 4 only      

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

 

Q 6. If you travel through the Himalayas, you are likely to see which of the following plants naturally growing there?

1. Oak

2. Rhododendron

3. Sandalwood

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only          

(b) 3 only        

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 7. Which of the following have coral reefs?

1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands

2. Gulf of Kachchh

3. Gulf of Mannar

4. Sunderbans

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only      

(b) 2 and 4 only          

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

 

Q 8. Consider the following pairs :

      Wetlands                                                         Confluence of rivers

1. Harike Wetlands                              :           Confluence of Beas and Satluj / Sutlej

2.Keoladeo Ghana National Park       :           Confluence of Banas and Chambal

3.Kolleru Lake                                    :           Confluence of Musi and Krishna

Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 9.  The most important strategy for the conservation of biodiversity together with traditional human life is the establishment of

1. Biosphere Reserves

2. Botanical Gardens

3. National Parks

4. Wildlife Sanctuaries

 

Q 10. Consider the following international agreements:

1. The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

2. The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification

3. The World Heritage Convention

Which of the above has / have a bearing on the biodiversity?

(a) 1 and 2 only          

(b) 3 only        

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 11.  Consider the following statements regarding ‘Earth Hour’:

1. It is an initiative of UNEP and UNESCO.

2. It is a movement in which the participants switch off the lights for one hour on a certain day every year.

3. It is a movement to raise the awareness about the climate change and the need to save the planet.

Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?

(a) 1 and 3 only          

(b) 2 only        

(c) 2 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 12. With reference to ‘Eco- Sensitive Zones’, which of the following statements is /are correct?

1. Eco-Sensitive Zones are the areas that are declared under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

2. The purpose of the declaration of Eco-Sensitive Zones is to prohibit all kinds of human activities in those zones except agriculture.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 only        

(c) Both 1 and 2         

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Q 13.Consider the following statements:

1. Animal Welfare Board of India is established under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

2. National Tiger Conservation Authority is a statutory body.

3. National Ganga River Basin Authority is chaired by the Prime Minister.

 Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 2 only        

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 14.Which one of the following is the correct sequence of a food chain?

(a) Diatoms-Crustaceans-Herrings

(b) Crustaceans-Diatoms-Herrings

(c) Diatoms –Herrings-Crustaceans

(d) Crustaceans-Herrings-Diatoms

 

Q 15.With reference to Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS), consider the following statements:

1. It is an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Environment and Forests.

2. It strives to conserve nature through action-based research, education and public awareness.

3. It organizes and conducts nature trails and camps for the general public.

Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?

(a) 1 and 3 only          

(b) 2 only        

(c) 2 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 16.Consider the following:

1. Bats 

2. Bears          

3. Rodents

The phenomenon of hibernation can be observed in which of the above kinds of animals?

(a) 1 and 2 only          

(b) 2 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3  

(d) Hibernation cannot be observed in any of the above

 

Q 17.If you walk through countryside, you are likely to see some birds stalking alongside the cattle to seize the insects disturbed by their movement through grasses. Which of the following is/are such bird/birds?

1. Painted Stork

2. Common Myna

3. Black-necked Crane

 Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2      

(b) 2 only        

(c) 2 and 3      

(d) 3 only

 

Q 18. Lichens, which are capable of initiating ecological succession even on a bare rock, are actually a symbiotic association of

(a) Algae and bacteria 

(b)  Algae and fungi

(c)  Bacteria and fungi 

(d)  Fungi and mosses

 

Q19. In India, the problem of soil erosion is associated with which of the following?

1. Terrace cultivation

2. Deforestation

3. Tropical climate

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only          

(b) 2 only        

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2, and 3

 

Q 20. With reference to Neem tree, consider the following statements:

1. Neem oil can be used as a pesticide to control the proliferation of some species of insects and mites.

2. Neem seeds are used in the manufacture of biofuels and hospital detergents.

3. Neem oil has applications in pharmaceutical industry.

Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only          

(b) 3 only        

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 21. Which one of the following is the process involved in photosynthesis?

1. Potential energy is released to form free energy

2. Free energy is converted into potential energy and stored

3. Food is oxidized to release carbon dioxide and water

4. Oxygen is taken, and carbon dioxide and water vapour are given out

 

Q 22.  Among the following organisms, which one does not belong to the class of other three?

(a) Crab          

(b) Mite          

(c) Scorpion    

(d) Spider

 

Q 21. With reference to ‘Global Environment Facility’, which of the following statements is / are correct?

1. It serves as financial mechanism for ‘Convention on Biological Diversity’ and ‘United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’

2. It undertakes scientific research on environmental issues at global level

3.It is an agency under OECD to facilitate the transfer of technology and funds to underdeveloped countries with specific aim to protect their environment

4. Both (a)  and (b) 

 

Q 24.Which of the following are some important pollutants released by steel industry in India?

1. Oxides of sulphur

2. Oxides of nitrogen

3. Carbon monoxide

4. Carbon dioxide

Select the correct answer using the code give below.

(a) 1,3 and 4 only       

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 4 only          

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

 

Q 25. Brominated flame retardants are used in many household products like mattresses and upholstery. Why is there some concern about their use?

1. They are highly resistant to degradation in the environment.

2. They are able to accumulate in humans and animals.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 only        

(c) Both 1 and 2         

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

2013

Total Number of  Questions asked from Environment & Disaster 16/100:

Total Marks allotted to Environment & Disaster is 32  Marks / 200 Total Marks.

Q 1.  In the grasslands, trees do not replace the grasses as a part of an ecological succession because of

(a) Insects and fungi

(b) Limited sunlight and paucity of nutrients

(c) Water limits and fire

(d) None of the above

 

Q 2.  Which one of the following is the correct sequence of ecosystems in the order of decreasing productivity?

(a) Oceans, lakes, grasslands, mangroves

(b) Mangroves, oceans, grasslands, lakes

(c) Mangroves, grasslands, lakes, oceans

(d) Oceans, mangroves, lakes, grasslands

 

Q 3.With reference to food chains in ecosystems, consider the following statements:

1. A food chain illustrates the order in which a chain of organisms feed upon each other.

2. Food chains are found within the populations of a species.

3. A food chain illustrates the numbers of each organism which are eaten by others.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3  

(d) None

 

Q 4. Which of the following adds/add nitrogen to the soil?

1. Excretion of urea by animals

2. Burning of coal by man

3. Death of vegetation

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 5. In which of the following States is lion-tailed macaque found in its natural habitat?

1. Tamil Nadu 

2. Kerala         

3. Karnataka   

4. Andhra Pradesh

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only      

(b) 2 only        

(c) 1, 3 and 4 only      

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

 

Q 6. Which one of the following terms describes not only the physical space occupied by an organism, but also its functional role in the community of organisms?

(a) Ecotone     

(b) Ecological niche

(c) Habitat      

(d) Home range

 

Q 7. Consider the following:

1. Star tortoise 

2. Monitor lizard

3. Pygmy hog 

4. Spider monkey

Which of the above are naturally found in India?

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only      

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 1 and 4 only          

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

 

Q 8. Consider the following animals:

1. Sea cow       

2. Sea horse    

3. Sea lion

 Which of the above is/are mammal/mammals?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 1 and 3 only          

(c) 2 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 9.  With reference to the food chains in ecosystems, which of the following kinds of organism is/are known as decomposer organism/organisms?

1. Virus

2. Fungi          

3. Bacteria

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 10.  Consider the following fauna of India:

1. Gharial        

2. Leatherback turtle  

3. Swamp deer

 Which of the above is/are endangered?

(a) 1 and 2 only          

(b) 3 only        

(c) 1, 2 and 3  

(d) None

 

Q 11. Consider the following pairs:

   National Park                          River flowing through the Park

1. Corbett National Park                  :           Ganga

2. Kaziranga National Park              :           Manas

3. Silent Valley National Park          :           Kaveri

 Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?

(a) 1 and 2      

(b) 3 only        

(c) 1 and 3      

(d) None

 

Q 12. Which of the following is/are unique characteristic/characteristics of equatorial forests?

1. Presence of tall, closely set trees with crowns forming a continuous canopy

2. Coexistence of a large number of species

3. Presence of numerous varieties of epiphytes

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 1 and 3only           

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 13. Which of the following can be found as pollutants in the drinking water in some parts of India?

1. Arsenic        

2. Sorbitol      

3. Fluoride      

4. Formaldehyde

5. Uranium

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 3 only          

(b) 2, 4 and 5 only      

(c) 1, 3 and 5 only      

(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

 

Q 14. Due to improper/indiscriminate disposal of old and used computers or their parts, which of the following are released into the environment as e-waste?

1. Beryllium    

2. Cadmium   

3. Chromium  

4. Heptachlor

5. Mercury      

6. Lead           

7. Plutonium

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1, 3, 4, 6 and 7 only          

(b) 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 only

(c) 2, 4, 5 and 7 only  

(d) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7

 

Q 15. Acid rain is caused by the pollution of environment by

(a) Carbon dioxide and nitrogen

(b) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide

(c) Ozone and carbon dioxide

(d) Nitrous oxide and sulphur dioxide

 

Q 16. Photochemical smog is a resultant of the reaction among

(a) NO2, O3, and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the presence of sunlight

(b) CO, O2 and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the presence of sunlight

(c) CO, CO2 and NO2 at low temperature

(d) High concentration of NO2, O3 and CO in the evening

 

 

2016

Total Number of  Questions asked from Environment & Disaster 17/100:

Total Marks allotted to Environment & Disaster is 34  Marks / 200 Total Marks.

 

Q 1.  In which one among the following categories of protected areas in India are local people notallowed to collect and use the biomass?

(a) Biosphere Reserves

(b) National Parks

(c) Wetlands declared under Ramsar Convention

(d) Wildlife Sanctuaries

 

Q 2. Which one of the following groups of animals belongs to the category of endangered species?

(a) Great Indian Bustard, Musk Deer, Red Panda and Asiatic Wild Ass

(b) Kashmir Stag, Cheetal, Blue Bull and Great Indian Bustard

(c) Snow Leopard, Swamp Deer, Rhesus Monkey and Saras (Crane)

(d) Lion-tailed Macaque, Blue Bull, Hanuman Langur and Cheetal

 

Q 3. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment describes the following major categories of ecosystem services—provisioning, supporting, regulating, preserving and cultural. Which one of the following is supporting service?

(a) Production of food and water

(b) Control of climate and disease

(c) Nutrient cycling and crop pollination

(d) Maintenance of diversity

 

Q 4. What is the difference between the antelopes Oryx and Chiru?

1. Oryx is adapted to live in hot and arid areas whereas Chiru is adapted to live in steppes and semi-desert areas of cold high mountains

2. Oryx is poached for its antlers whereas Chiru is poached for its musk

3. Oryx exists in western India only whereas Chiru exists in north-east India only.

3. None of the statements (a) , (b)   and (c)    given above is correct

 

Q 5. Which of the following can be threats to the biodiversity of a geographical area?

1. Global warming

2. Fragmentation of habitat

3. Invasion of alien species

4. Promotion of vegetarianism

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only      

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 4 only          

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

 

Q 6. Consider the following:

1. Black –necked crane

2. Cheetah

3. Flying Squirrel

4. Snow leopard

Which of the above are naturally found in India?

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only      

(b) 1, 3 and 4 only      

(c) 2 and 4 only          

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

 

Q7. How does National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) help in protecting the Indian agriculture?

1. NBA checks the biopiracy and protects the indigenous and traditional genetic resources.

2. NBA directly monitors and supervises the scientific research on genetic modification of crop plants.

3. Application for Intellectual Property Rights related to genetic/biological resources cannot be made without the approval of NBA.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 8. Consider the following protected areas:

1. Bandipur    

2. Bhitarkanika

3. Manas         

4. Sunderbans

Which of the above are declared Tiger Reserves?

(a) 1 and 2 only          

(b) 1, 3 and 4 only      

(c) 2, 3 and 4 only      

(d)  1, 2, 3 and 4

 

Q 9. What would happen if phytoplankton of an ocean is completely destroyed for some reason?

1. The ocean as a carbon sink would be adversely affected

2. The food chains in the ocean would be adversely affected

3. The density of ocean water would drastically decrease

 Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only          

(b) 2 only        

(c) 3 only        

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 10. With reference to the wetlands of India, consider the following statements:

1. The country’s total geographical area under the category of wetlands is recorded more in Gujarat as compared to other States

2. In India, the total geographical area of coastal wetlands is larger than that of inland wetlands

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 only        

(c) Both 1 and 2         

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Q 11.  Government of India encourages the cultivation of ‘sea buckthorn’. What is the importance of this plant?

1. It helps in controlling soil erosion and in preventing desertification.

2. It is a rich source of biodiesel.

3. It has nutritional value and is well-adapted to live in cold areas of high altitudes.

4. Its timber is of great commercial value.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only         

(b) 2, 3 and 4 only      

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

 

Q 12.  Vultures which used to be very common in Indian countryside some years ago are rarely seen nowadays. This is attributed to

(a) The destruction of their nesting sites by new invasive species

(b) A drug used by cattle owners for treating their diseased cattle

(c) Scarcity of food available to them

(d) A widespread, persistent and fatal disease among them

 

Q 13.The acidification of oceans is increasing. Why is this phenomenon a cause of concern?

1. The growth and survival of calcareous phytoplankton will be adversely affected.

2.The growth and survival of coral reefs will be adversely affected.

3.The survival of some animals that have phytoplanktonic larvae will be adversely affected.

4.The cloud seeding and formation of clouds will be adversely affected.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1,2 and 3 only        

(b) 2, only       

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

 

Q 14. Biomass gasification is considered to be one of the sustainable solutions to the power crisis in India. In this context, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. Coconut shells, groundnut shells and rice husk can be used in biomass gasification.

2. The combustible gases generated from biomass gasification consist of hydrogen and carbon dioxide only.

3. The combustible gases generated from biomass gasification can be used for direct heat generation but not in internal combustion engines.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 15. Lead, ingested or inhaled, is a health hazard. After the addition of lead to petrol has been banned, what still are the sources of lead poisoning?

1. Smelting units        

2. Pens and pencils

3. Paints         

4. Hair oils and cosmetics

 Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only      

(b) 1 and 3 only

(c) 2 and 4 only          

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

 

Q 16. If National Water Mission is properly and completely implemented, how will it impact the country?

1. Part of the water needs of urban areas will be met through recycling of waste water.

2. The water requirements of coastal cities with inadequate alternative sources of water will be met by adopting appropriate technologies that allow for the use of ocean water.

3. All the rivers of Himalayan origin will be linked to the rivers of peninsular India.

4. The expenses incurred by farmers for digging bore-wells and for installing motors and pump- sets to draw ground water will be completely reimbursed by the Government.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1only          

(b) 1 and 2 only          

(c) 3 and 4 only          

(d)  1, 2, 3 and 4

 

Q17.  What is the role of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the water purification systems?

1. It inactivates/kills the harmful microorganisms in water.

2. It removes all the undesirable odours from the water.

3. It quickens the sedimentation of solid particles, removes turbidity and improves the clarity of water.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(b) 1 only         

(b) 2and 3 only           

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2, and 3

 

2011

Total Number of  Questions asked from Environment & Disaster 17/100:

Total Marks allotted to Environment & Disaster is 34 Marks / 200 Total Marks.

 

Q 1.  Human activities in the recent past have caused the increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, but a lot of it does not remain in the lower atmosphere because of

1. Its escape into the outer stratosphere

2. The photosynthesis by phytoplankton in the oceans

3. The trapping of air in the polar ice caps.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2      

(b) 2 only        

(c) 2 and 3      

(d) 3 only

 

Q 2.  In the context of ecosystem productivity, marine upwelling zones are important as they increase the marine productivity by bringing the

1. Decomposer microorganisms to the surface

2. Nutrients to the surface

3. Bottom-dwelling organisms to the surface

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2      

(b) 2 only        

(c) 2 and 3      

(d) 3 only

 

Q3. With reference to India, consider the following Central Acts:

1. Import and Export (Control) Act, 1947

2. Mining and Mineral Development (Regulation) Act, 1957.

3. Customs Act, 1962

4. Indian Forest Act, 1927

Which of the above Acts have relevance to/bearing on the biodiversity conservation in the country?

(a) 1 and 3 only          

(b) 2, 3 and 4 only

(c) 1, 2, 3 and 4          

(d) None of the above Act

 

Q 4. Consider the following

1. Photosynthesis        

2. Respiration

3. Decay of organic matter    

4. Volcanic action

Which of the above add carbon dioxide to the carbon cycle on Earth?

(a) 1 and 4 only          

(b) 2 and 3 only           

(c) 2, 3 and 4 only      

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

 

Q 5. A sandy and saline area is the natural habitat of an Indian animal species. The animal has no predators in that area but its existence is threatened due to the destruction of its habitat. Which one of the following could be that animal?

(a) Indian wild buffalo          

(b) Indian wild ass

(c) Indian wild boar   

(d) Indian gazelle

 

Q 6. Biodiversity forms the basis for human existence in the following ways:

1. Soil formation         

2. Prevention of soil erosion

3. Recycling of waste

4. Pollination of crops

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

(a)  1, 2 and 3 only      

(b)   2, 3 and 4 only      

(c)    1 and 4 only          

(d)  1, 2, 3 and 4

 

Q 7. Which one of the following is not a site for in-situ method of conservation of flora?

(a) Biosphere Reserve

(b) Botanical Garden

(c) National Park        

(d) Wildlife Sanctuary

 

Q 8.  The 2004 Tsunami made people realize that mangroves can serve as a reliable safety hedge against coastal calamities. How do mangroves function as a safety hedge?

1. The mangrove swamps separate the human settlements from the sea by a wide zone in which people neither live nor venture out

2. The mangrove provides both food and medicines which people are in need of after any natural disaster

3. The mangrove trees are tall with dense canopies and serve as an excellent shelter during a cyclone or tsunami

4. The mangrove trees do not get uprooted by storms and tides because of their extensive roots.

 

Q 9.  The “Red Data Books” published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) contain lists of

1. Endemic plant and animal species present in the biodiversity hotspots.

2. Threatened plant and animal species

3. Protected sites for conservation of nature and natural resources in various countries.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 3      

(b) 2 only        

(c) 2 and 3      

(d) 3 only

 

Q 10. Consider the following statements:

1. Biodiversity is normally greater in the lower latitudes as compared to the higher latitudes

2. Along the mountain gradients, biodiversity is normally greater in the lower altitudes as compared to the higher altitudes.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 only        

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Q 11.  Two important rivers- one with its source in Jharkhand (and known by a different name in Odisha), and another, with its source in Odisha – merge at a place only a short distance from the coast of Bay of Bengal before flowing into the sea. This is an important site of wildlife and biodiversity and a protected area. Which one of the following could be this?

(a) Bhitarkanika         

(b) Chandipur on sea

(c) Gopalpur on sea    

(d) Simlipal

 

Q 12.  Three of the following criteria have contributed to the recognition of Western Ghats Sri Lanka and Indo-Burma regions as hotspots of biodiversity:

1. Species richness

2. Ethno-botanical importance

3. Vegetation density

4. Endemism

5. Threat perception

 

Q 13. Adaptation of flora and fauna to warm and humid conditions Which three of the above are correct criteria in this context?

(a) 1, 2 and 6  

(b) 2, 4 and 6  

(c) 1, 3 and 5  

(d)  3, 4 and 6

 

Q 14. If a tropical rain forest is removed, it does not regenerate quickly as compared to a tropical deciduous forest. This is because

(a) The soil of rain forest is deficient in nutrients

(b) Propagules of the trees in a rain forest have poor viability

(c) The rain forest species are slow growing

(d) Exotic species invade the fertile soil of rain forest

 

Q 15. The Himalayan Range is very rich in species diversity. Which one among the following is the  most appropriate reason for this phenomenon?

(a) It has a high rainfall that supports luxuriant vegetative growth

(b) It is a confluence of different biogeographical zones

(c) Exotic and invasive species have not been introduced in this region

(d) It has less human interference

 

Q 16.Consider the following:

1. Carbon dioxide       

2. Oxides of Nitrogen

3. Oxides of Sulphur

Which of the above is/are the emission/emissions from coal combustion at thermal power plants?

(a) 1 only        

(b) 2 and 3 only          

(c) 1 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q 17.There is a concern over the increase in harmful algal blooms in the seawaters of India. What could be the causative factors for this phenomenon?

1. Discharge of nutrients from the estuaries

2. Run-off from the land during the monsoon.

3. Upwelling in the seas.

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

(a) 1 only        

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only          

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Last 8 Year Mains Question asked from Environment Subject (Year Wise)

2018

Total Questions asked 4 /20: 2 Qs. of 15 Marks, 2 Qs. of 10 Marks.

Total Marks allotted to Environment  is 50 Marks / 250 Total Marks.

Q. 1 

What are the impediments in disposing the huge quantities of discarded solid wastes which are continuously being generated? How do we remove safely the toxic wastes that have been accumulating in our habitable environment?

(150 Words,MARKS10)

Q. 2 

What is wetland? Explain the Ramsar concept of ‘wise use’ in the context of wetland conservation. Cite two examples of Ramsar sites from India.

(150 Words,MARKS10)

Q. 3 

Describe various measures taken in India for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) before and after signing ‘Sendai Framework for DRR (2015-2030)’. How is this framework different from ‘Hyogo Framework for Action, 2005?

(250 Words,MARKS15)

Q. 4

How does biodiversity vary in India? How is the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 helpful in conservation of flora and fauna?

(250 Words,MARKS15)

2017

Total Questions asked 2 /20: 2 Qs. of 15 Marks, 0 Qs. of 10 Marks.

Total Marks allotted to Environmen is 30 Marks / 250 Total Marks.

Q. 1 

On December 2004, tsumani brought havoc on 14 countries including India. Discuss the factors responsible for occurrence of Tsunami and its effects on life and economy. In the light of guidelines of NDMA (2010) describe the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events.

(250 Words,MARKS15)

Q. 2 

 ‘Climate Change’ is a global problem. How India will be affected by climate change? How Himalayan and coastal states of India will be affected by climate change?

(250 Words,MARKS15)

2016

Total Questions asked 3 /20: 3 Qs. of 12.5 Marks, 0 Qs. of 10 Marks.

Total Marks allotted to Environmen is 37.5 Marks / 250 Total Marks.

Q. 1 

Discuss the Rehabilitation of human settlements is one of the important environmental impacts which always attracts controversy while planning major projects. Discuss the measures suggested for mitigation of this impact while proposing major developmental projects.      

(200 Words, MARKS 12.5)

Q. 2 

The frequency of urban floods due to high intensity rainfall is increasing over the years. Discussing the reasons for urban floods, highlight the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events.

(200 Words, MARKS 12.5)

Q. 3

With reference to National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) guidelines, discuss the measures to be adopted to mitigate the impact of the recent incidents of cloudbursts in many places of Uttarakhand.

(200 Words, MARKS 12.5)

2015

Total Questions asked 1/20: 1 Qs. of 12.5 Marks, 0 Qs. of 10 Marks.

Total Marks allotted to Environmen is 12.5 Marks / 250 Total Marks.

Q. 1 

Discuss the Namami Gange and National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) programmes and causes of mixed results from the previous schemes. What quantum leaps can help preserve the river Ganga better than incremental inputs?

(200 Words, MARKS 12.5)

2014

Total Questions asked 2/20 : 2 Qs. of 12.5 Marks, 0 Qs. of 10 Marks.

Total Marks allotted to Environmen is 25  Marks / 250 Total Marks.

Q. 1 

Should the pursuit of carbon credits and clean development mechanisms set up under UNFCCC be maintained even though there has been a massive slide in the value of a carbon credit? Discuss with respect to India’s energy needs for economic growth.

(200 Words, MARKS 12.5)

Q. 2 

Environmental Impact Assessment Studies are increasingly undertaken before a project is cleared by the Government. Discuss the environmental impacts of coal-fired thermal plants located at coal pitheads.      

(200 Words, MARKS 12.5)

2013

Total Questions asked 2/25 : 0 Qs. of 12.5 Marks, 2 Qs. of 10 Marks.

Total Marks allotted to Environmen is 20  Marks / 250 Total Marks.

Q. 1 

What are the consequences of illegal mining? Discuss the Ministry of Environment and Forest concept of GO AND NO GO zones for coal mining sector.

(200 Words,MARKS10)

Q. 2 

Enumerate the National Water Policy of India. Taking river Ganges as an example, discuss the strategies which may be adopted for river water pollution control and management. What are the legal provisions of management and handling of hazardous wastes in India?

(200 Words,MARKS10)

Sample Notes - Exams Easy

Exams Easy Environment Theory Sample

Environment and Ecology

Introduction to Environment:

  • The sum total of all surroundings of a living organism is known as environment.

  • The surroundings may be classified into living thing or non-living thing.

  • Living thing is also known as biotic component.

  • These biotic components constitute biological aspects of surroundings. It includes plants, animals, microbes etc.

  • Non-living thing is also known as abiotic component.

  • These abiotic components constitute physical, chemical and socio-cultural aspects of surroundings.

  • Physical aspects of surroundings include gravity, soil, temperature, water etc.

  • Chemical aspects of surroundings involve various chemical reactions of the environment such as photosynthesis, rusting, burning etc.

  • Socio culture aspect involves the man-made customs, religious beliefs etc.

  • Environment provides food, energy, water, oxygen, shelter etc. to the organisms.

  • These organisms interact with the environment continuously for their needs of food, energy, shelter etc.

  • The organisms also interact with themselves and thus are interdependent on each other and their environment.

  • Both biotic and abiotic components of environment keep changing continuously and thus the environment is not static.

Ecology

  • Now, from our previous discussion, we came to know that organisms interact with both biotic and abiotic components of the environment continuously.

  • The study of this interaction and interdependence between organisms and their environment is known as ecology.

  • The word Ecology has been derived from the Greek word ‘oikology’ meaning study of home of the nature.

  • The word was coined by the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel.

 

Ecological levels:

  • Individual: Every organism that has the ability to act independently form the basic unit of ecological level i.e. individual. It may be plants, animals or any microbes. e.g. a reindeer, a tiger, a mango tree etc.

  • Population:  A Group of individuals belonging to the same species is known as population. e.g. flock of reindeer. 

  • Community:  A group of organisms belonging to different species but live in a specific area is known as community. It is a group of plants, animals, microbes that live in an area. They share common resources available in that area for mutual benefits.

  • Ecosystem: Whenever you come across the word ‘system’, it means the set of interdependence or interrelated things interacting together as a part of mechanism. So, ecosystem is defined as functional unit of nature where living and non-living components of environment interact among themselves and with their surroundings. The ecosystem may be as small as pond or it may be as large as ocean.

  • Biome: It is defined as a geographical area that is classified according to the community of plants and animals that live in it. It is different from the ecosystem in the sense that ecosystem involves interaction among the organisms and with their environment whereas biome is a specific geographic area. A biome may be a collection of many ecosystems. For example, aquatic biome is a collection of mangrove ecosystem, coral ecosystem etc.

  • Biosphere: It is that zone of the Earth where all forms of life exists. This zone has all the three elements that are essential for the sustenance of life. These elements are lithosphere (land), atmosphere (air) and hydrosphere (water). One may call biosphere the collection of all ecosystems on the Earth.


Ecosystem:

  • It is the functional unit of nature.

  • In the ecosystem, living organisms interact among themselves and with their surroundings.

  • Arthur Tansle, an English botanist introduced the concept of Ecosystem.

  • It can be divided into 02 broad categories: Terrestrial and Aquatic.

  • Terrestrial ecosystem includes grasslands, forests, deserts etc. while aquatic ecosystem includes rivers, ponds, lakes, ocean etc..

  • Ecosystem can be as small as a tree or it as large as a forest.

 

Components of ecosystem:

It has biotic and abiotic component:

  • Abiotic component: It includes the inorganic and non-living components of nature. This includes soil, water, temperature, air etc.

  • Biotic component: It includes the organic and living components of nature like plants, animals and microbes. Depending on their ability to produce food, they are classified into producers and consumers. 

 

Producers

  • They make their own food in the form of carbohydrates by using inorganic materials like carbon dioxide and water through the process of photosynthesis. They are also known as autotrophs.

  • Examples include green plants, certain bacteria and algae (like blue green algae).

  • They serve food to the consumers.

 

Consumers 

  • They cannot produce their own food and thus are dependent on producers. They are also known as heterotrophs.

  • There are two types of consumers namely macro consumer and micro consumer:

    • Macro consumers like animals feed on the producers.

    • Micro consumers like bacteria and fungi gets energy by decomposing the dead matter. They are also known as saprotrophs.

 

Now, let us study forest ecosystem:

The above diagram shows the forest ecosystem.

  • Biotic components include trees, animals, microbes etc. whereas abiotic components includes air, water, sunlight soil etc..

  • Producers like green plants produce food through the process of photosynthesis. They use sunlight, water and carbon dioxide to produce carbohydrate and oxygen.

  • Consumers depend upon producers for their food and releases carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. This carbon dioxide is again utilised by producers.

  • Some consumers also depend upon other consumers for their food.

  • Some micro consumers also depend upon microbes and gets their energy by the process of decomposition.

  • Thus, in this way all living organisms interact with other organisms and with their surroundings and thus forms forest ecosystem.

 

Functions of ecosystem: 

Ecosystem performs the following function

  • Energy flow

  • Nutrient cycle

  • Ecological succession

 

Energy Flow

  • In an ecosystem, energy flow takes place from one trophic level to another trophic level. It is unidirectional i.e. energy always flows from producer i.e.  autotroph to consumer i.e. heterotroph.

 

Trophic level interaction:

  • Primary producer at the bottom (autotrophs) produces the energy through the process of photosynthesis.

  • Primary consumers (herbivores) consumes energy by feeding on the autotrophs. Secondary consumers (carnivores) hunt on the primary consumer. These secondary consumers are the food for the tertiary consumers which are placed at the top most trophic level. 

  • All primary consumers, secondary consumers and tertiary consumers are categorised as heterotrophs.

  • As the energy flows from one trophic Level to another trophic level there is loss of some energy in the form of heat.

Energy flow can be seen in the ecosystem in the following manner

  • Food chain: It expresses the linear flow of energy from one trophic Level to another trophic level. There are 02 types of food chain:

  • Grazing Food Chain: This food chain starts with the autotrophs and ends with the consumers. For example:

Terrestrial Grazing food chain:

Plant > Caterpillar > Frog > Snake > Owl

 

 

 

Marine Grazing food chain: Phytoplankton > Zooplankton > Small fish > Big fish > Mammals

 

 

 

           

 

  • Detritus food chain: This food chain starts with the dead organic matter of plants and animals and ends with the consumers. For example:

           

Dead leaves > Woodlouse > Blackbird

 

 

 

  • Food Web: Unlike food chain which represent only linear energy flow, food web explains all possible transfer of energy among the organisms present in a one trophic level. It provides more than one alternative for food to most of the organism and thus represents non-linear or multi directional flow of energy.

 

Note: Dolphin and Whales are not fish.

 

 Ecological Pyramid:

  • It is a statistical tool to study food chain in a given ecosystem.

  • It consists of number of horizontal bars displaying the specific trophic level.

  • At the bottom there is always producer and at the top there is always top consumer.

 

 Ecological pyramid is of three types:

  • Pyramid of number

  • Pyramid of biomass 

  • Pyramid of energy

 

Pyramid of Number: 

  • It explains the relationship between the number of primary producer and number of consumers at different levels.

  • Pyramid of number may be upright or inverted depending upon the size and Biomass.

  • Upright pyramid can be seen in grass and pond ecosystem.

  • Inverted pyramid or spindle shaped pyramid of number can be seen in forest ecosystem.

 

 

 

 

 

 Pyramid of biomass

  • In pyramid of number it is difficult to count all the organism in an ecosystem, hence pyramid of biomass is used, which represents the weight of the organism at each trophic level.

  • Biomass is defined as the dry weight of an organism.

  • Pyramid of biomass can be upward or inverted.

    • Upward pyramid: It is seen in most of the ecosystem of land.

    • Inverted pyramid of biomass:  It is seen in the aquatic ecosystem. 

 

 

 

 

 

Pyramid of energy:  

  • It is always upright because at each trophic level energy is dissipated (keep decreasing with increase in level) in the form of heat.

Pollutant at various Trophic level:

  • Pollutants which cannot be degraded and cannot be metabolized by the living organism remains in the food chain for longer time. (Ex. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons).

  • These pollutants move from one organism to other organism through two processes:

    • Bioaccumulation: It is the process of increase in the concentration of pollutants within the trophic level i.e. it is the accumulation of a substance within an organism.

    • Biomagnification:  It is a process in which the concentration of the pollutant increases as they move from one trophic level to the next trophic level in the food chain. In this process pollutant must be mobile, fat soluble and biologically active. For example DDT, endosulfan, drugs like Diclofenac etc...

 

 

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